Euripides Scholia

Manuscripts with Scholia on Euripides (new version)

See also the Table of Sigla for Euripidean manuscripts EurSiglaTable.html.

Abbreviations: RGK = Repertorium der griechischen Kopisten 800-1600 (to date 3 vols. in 9 parts, 1981-1997) [Veroffentlichungen der Kommission fur Byzantinistik, Bd. 3]; PLP = E. Trapp, R. Walther, H.-V. Beyer, eds., Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit, Vienna 1996-.

Manuscripts written before 1250


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: h in Prinz-Wecklein

CITY: Jerusalem

COLLECTION: Patriarchike Bibliotheke

SHELFMARK: Panaghiou Taphou 36

DATE: 10th-11th cent.


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: Some pages of this palimpsest contained as the original text select plays of Euripides. The surviving pages contain Hec. 869-920, 1125-1173, Ph. 811-899 1600-1700 (and also, on pages recently identified by Albrecht and not present in the Daitz facsimile, Ph. 730-750, 753-777, 952-974, 977-992), Or. 105-213, 313-412, 565-588, 592-614, 718-766, 897-946, 1152-1200. 1356-1556, Andr. 80-169, 777-830, 887-986, 1042-1091, Hipp. 320-368, 469-518, 1136-1186, 1290-1336, Med. 51-255, 1278-1376.


I follow Daitz in his identification of hands for the scholia. Most of the annotation is by the same two scribes who wrote the poetic text. These two hands are dated by Daitz to around 1000. The third hand wrote some pages which are apparently replacement pages and added some scholia on other pages. In his second publication, correcting the date offered in the first, Daitz dates the third hand to 1050-1150; Nigel Wilson in GRBS 1973, 224-225 suggests this hand may be of the 11th century and not so distant in date from the others. A few additions to the annotation were made by five additional hands of later date. I use the siglum H to indicate the first hand; other hands are indicated by a superscript number.

IMAGES USED: Plates in the facsimile (Daitz 1970), and scans from those plates. Impressive new images obtained through multispectral imaging have been created by the Palamedes project, and will eventually be accessible to the public (I have seen only the one sample image made available with the press release). That project will publish a new facsimile and report (in 2017?), and it is reported by Felix Albrecht that a considerable number of new scholia can be read on the new images.

ONLINE IMAGES:    (one sample image of Phoen. 878-899, 812-829 downloadable from press release)   

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: facsimile: Stephen G. Daitz, The Jerusalem Palimpsest of Euripides, Berlin 1970, and The Scholia in the Jerusalem Palimpsest of Euripides: A Critical Edition, Heidelberg 1979; Turyn 86-87; Matthiessen 41-42; Mastronarde–Bremer 2; Diggle 5; Cavarzeran 29-30. Preliminary report of new information: Felix Albrecht, Aevum 86 (2012) 3-27.


Partially collated from the facsimile with the help of Daitz’s reports in his scholia volume. Awaiting the new publication for further study of H.


CITY: Venice

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana

SHELFMARK: greco Z. 471 (=765)

DATE: 11th cent.


CATALOGUE (later than Turyn 1957): E. Mioni, Bibliothecae Divi Marci Venetiarum codices graeci manuscripti. 1:2. Thesaurus antiquus, codices 300-625 (Rome 1985) 260-262.

EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 20r-42v: Hec.; 42v-43v: arg. Or.; 44r-75r: Or.; 75v-76v: arg. Ph.; 76v-109r: Ph.; 109r-109v: arg. Andr.; 109v-132v: Andr.; 133r-133v: arg. Hipp.; 133v-154v: Hipp. 1-1254

TYPE AND FORMAT: Large set of old scholia by first hand, but those on Hipp. are often truncated. The number of lines of poetic text on each page is regular: 29 lines in the first quire or Hec. (20r-27v), but 28 lines from 28r to the end, except 27 on 99r-v. On pages with dense annotation, the scholia are are positioned in top, outer, and lower margin, with reference symbols. When the annotation is less dense, the top and bottom and the beginning and ending of the outer margin by be use, normally with reference symbols. On the least dense pages scholia may be only in the side block. If scholia are sparsely placed in side block, they usually are positioned at the level of the lemma in the text and usually omit both reference symbol and lemma.


All the scholia and almost all the supralinear and intermarginal annotations are from the original writing of the manuscript and are referred to as M or Ms; the light brown ink of M has a distinctly yellowish tinge and in some of the interlinear and intermarginal notes is written with an exceptionally fine stroke. Later annotations are relatively few and are written in a more grayish ink, usually with a broader or fuzzier stroke, and often extremely faint. On the new digital images it seems possible to distinguish two later hands. The more neatly written glosses (sometimes fainter) are designated as M2, whereas M3 is used to refer to those that are written larger and more informally (and usually darker) and may be Palaeologan. But in some cases it is unclear whether notes that appear somewhat different may not represent the same scribe in modes of writing that vary in formality, or whether more than one scribe is responsible for the notes recorded as M2.

IMAGES USED: Initially, digitized images from a recent microfilm. From August 2014 new color digital images. Autopsy inspection of problematic passages (using UV lamp) March 2015, which allowed more accurate and more complete reading at some places than Schwartz was able to perform. Facsimile: Euripidis quae in codice Veneto marciano 471 inveniuntur, phototypice expressa Florentiae, Arte fratrum Alinari, typis opificii "La stampa" cura et impensis J.A. Spranger, 1935 (to which I do not have access except when visiting libraries that own it). The manuscript has been restored since the 1935 facsimile, and some letters then concealed by folds in the parchment are visible now.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 84-85; Matthiessen 48; Mastronarde–Bremer 2; Diggle 5; Cavarzeran 30-31; Mastronarde 2017: Chapter 4.


Like other old parchment manuscripts, M has suffered fading and damage in the margins of some pages, and the writing is in places unrecoverable.

The scholia on the triad plays and Andromache are extensive, and the same applies to lines 1-350 of Hippolytus. For Hipp. 350-800, however, the scholia become sparser (a few folios have only a couple of interlinear glosses) and are in an abridged form relative to those of similar content in BVN (the abridgement is somewhat like that of the scholia on Orestes in O compared to the fuller versions in MBV). After Hipp. 850 there are only four short glosses, and most folios have no annotation at all.

In Mastronarde 2017, Chapter 4, I have discussed the features of the script and the dating of M as well as some other palaeographic and codicological details.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: Par. B in Matthiae, b in Prinz-Wecklein

CITY: Paris

COLLECTION: Biblothèque Nationale

SHELFMARK: grec 2713

DATE: 11th (or late 10th?) cent.


CATALOGUE (later than Turyn 1957): See the detailed description dated 2012 provided online at the site. (URL below)

EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: (original parts) 17r-28r: Hec. 523-1295; 28r-v: arg. Or.; 28v-56r: Or.; 56r-v: arg. Phoen.; 56v-82r: Phoen.; 82r-v: arg. Hipp.; 82v-108r: Hipp.; 108r-v: arg. Med.; 108v-129v: Medea; 129v: arg. Alc.; 129v-145v: Alc.; 145v: arg. Androm.; 146r-159v: Androm. 1-956, 1212-1235, 1250-1271

TYPE AND FORMAT: A large set of old scholia, but some of those on Andr. are shortered versions. glosses above the line (many not reported by Schwartz) or beside the line. Mainly in the triad, later hands add younger glosses, including some Moschopulean ones. The number of lines of poetic text per page is often 32 or 34, but pages can be found with as few as 23 or as many as 37. Like M, B uses top, side, and bottom block on pages with dense annotation, and sometimes the intermarginal space and the inner margin of the page. Reference symbols and lemmata are normal on such pages. When annotation is less dense, the scholia may be in an upper bracket (top block and a variable number of lines in the side), with the bottom block blank; or less often a bracket at the bottom, with a few lines in the end of the side block continuing into a few in the bottom block. When it annotation sparse, scholia may be confined to the side block and spaced at intervals, usually without reference symbols or lemmata.


The following remarks on the hands of the scholia in B are based on study of the online color images for Orestes 1-500. It should be emphasized that attributions among the later hands is sometimes quite uncertain, and that the results do not necessarily apply to other sections of the manuscript. The situation is simpler in Phoen., and even more so in the non-triad plays.

The scholia blocks are in the main hand (B, or occasionally B1 for extra clarity), a regular minuscule with some majuscule letters, constrained to normal size with few exceptions (I noted some extra wide upsilons in ligature with pi); breathings rectilinear. Few if any supralinear notes can be assigned with certainty to this hand. After some of the original writing became faint, it was written over. I report rewritten passages as B unless there is a reason to believe that the later hand altered the original reading. (It is probably true that the original codex "est entièrement copié par un seul et même copiste," as the online description states. But in the scholia this scribe's style can vary in minor details such as proportion of majuscule letters, space between letters, treatment of epsilon in ligatures and suspension, and use or avoidance of certain abbreviations.)

B2 is a light brown ink, which sometimes can be very faint; this hand tends to be smaller and more regular than B3 hands, uses more old minuscule abbreviations and letter forms. For examples, see the variant ἐκδικῶν over the first line of the hypothesis (Arg. 1), and the fainter of the two additions made to Arg. 2c. This hand is probably pre-Palaeologan.

B3 hands show more irregularity, cursiveness, and similarities to Palaeologan hands or even later scripts.

I use B3a for the majority of these later glosses; the ink varies from dark brown, or almost black when the pen is freshly dipped, to medium brown; the hand is fairly cursive and sometimes mannered. This hand appears at many places to be rewriting a very faint underlying annotation: perhaps this same hand rewrote some faded text and scholia, but in those cases the scribe usually followed more carefully the size of original letters; in interlinear instances, this scribe seems to freely use more space than the obscured gloss. Thus it is possible that some B3a glosses are actually older, but we can no longer detect the earlier writing or confirm that traces represent the same annotation.

B3b is in a lighter ink, with separated letters and fairly neat, as in the gloss λάβοι on line 3.

B3c is very light, irregular, and sloppy; examples at lines 4 and line 5.

B3d is a very black ink, usually written with sharper strokes, but like B3a sometimes seems to be rewriting previous annotations; when B3a is at its darkest, it is hard to distinguish from B3d. Examples of B3d are the correction of middle letters of αἴγισθον in the first sentence of Arg. 1 or the note with the names of Erinyes at 37.

B4 has largish letters, light ink, late mannered letter forms, adds marginal labels to some scholia to highlight content and also adds marginal notations drawn from lexica or the Suda.

IMAGES USED: Collated from online images and sometimes from from scanned images made by me from photographs from the collection of Alexander Turyn (these sometimes show more clearly words in the curve of the binding that are obscure on the online images). Facsimile: Euripidis quae in Cod. Par. Gr. 2713 servantur, phototypice expressa cura et impensis J.A. Spranger. Lutetiae Parisiorum: R. de Longneval 1938 (to which I do not have access except when visiting libraries that own it).


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 87-88; Matthiessen 44; Mastronarde–Bremer 1-2; Diggle 5-6; Cavarzeran 23-26.

FURTHER BIBLIOGRAPHY: See also the detailed description dated 2012 provided online at the site. Two fifteenth-century scribes have been identified on the replacement pages 1r-8v (Georgios Baiophoros, RGK II 74) and 9r-16v (Theodoros Gazes, RGK II 165).


Outside of Orestes 1-500, collation been completed ( as of late 2017) for the first hand only, since it is much easier to collate the later entries after glosses and other notes have been recorded from the recentiores and the Moschopulean witnesses.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: Flor. 10 in Matthiae, Dindorf; c in Prinz-Wecklein; K in editions of Sophocles

CITY: Florence

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana

SHELFMARK: plut. 31.10

DATE: ca. 1175 (or somewhat earlier?)


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r-19v: Hec.; 19v-20v: arg. Or.; 20v-45v Or.; 45v-46r: arg. Med.; 46r-64v: Med.; 64v: arg. Ph.; 64v-87r: Ph.: 87r: arg. Alc.; 87v-99v: Alc.; 99v arg. Andr.; 99v-115v: Andr.; 116r: arg Hipp.; 116r-133v: Hipp.; 134r-141v: Rhes. dram. pers., 1-714

TYPE AND FORMAT: A very limited selection based on the old scholia scholia, often abbreviated in an idiosyncratic way, and present only in the first three plays of the codex (Hec., Or., Med.), and even in these absent for long stretches of the text. Some glosses on these plays as well.


While the poetic text is in the hand of Ioannikios (see discussion below), the scholia are in the hand of an anonymous collaborator of his, whom Degni designates as B, who also wrote the scholia in other manuscripts of Ioannikios.

IMAGES USED: Collated from microfilm, from scanned images made by me from photographs from the collection of Alexander Turyn, and from online images. Some autopsy checking May 2013.

ONLINE IMAGES:    (enter plut.31.10 in the field parole chiave and click on Cerca)

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 333-335; Matthiessen 39; Mastronarde–Bremer 3; Diggle 6; J. Irigoin, "La tradition des tragiques grecs dans l'Italie méridionale," Bisanzio e l'Italia. Raccolta di studi in memoria di Agostino Pertusi, Milan 1982, 132-143 [= J. Irigoin, La tradition des textes grecs. Pour une critique historique, Paris 2003, 537-552]; P. Degni, “I manoscritti dello ‘Scriptorium’ di Gioannicio,” Segno e Testo 6 (2008) 179-248; ; D. Baldi, “Ioannikios e il Corpus Aristotelicum,” Revue d'histoire des textes, n.s. 6 (2011) 15-26; Nesseris, forthcoming.


After having no scholia on the last four Euripidean plays, sporadic scholia return again in Sophocles' Ajax. Because of the quality of the paper, there has been much bleedthrough as well as absorption of ink, creating dark patches around text, reducing contrast in images. Repair tissue also apparently makes the script less sharp. In addition, the poetic text is crowded by word-for-word Latin glossing of Hec. 1-466 (fols. 1r to 7r) added by Leonzio Pilato in 1360-1362. Greek glossing is tiny and hard to spot amidst other writing when glossing in Latin is dense. Marginal Greek is easier to see, but still very small and full of abbreviations, and on both rectos and versos marginal writing may be cut off by trimming of the paper. The same occurs at the top of the page sometimes, when this space is used. The online images are better than the Turyn photographs, but not of sufficient resolution in the original bml online viewer to allow needed magnification in the most difficult places, and they do not show letters close to the binding on verso pages. A new viewer will be available when the updated site finally become usable (initiated in 2017 but always offline of maintenance).

The BML information still shows the date of this manuscript as 1301-1400, but on the dating of Ioannikios' activity to the 12th century, see N. G. Wilson in CR 18 (1978), 336, and in Scrittura e Civiltà 7 (1983), 161-176; on p. 163 of the latter Wilson notes about O that "The text is in the hand of Ioannikios, while the notes were written by his anonymous colleague. The book is interesting in one other respect: it belonged to Leonzio Pilato, who wrote between the lines his version of Euripides' Hecuba 1-466." See also Degni and Baldi as cited above. A fuller discussion of Ioannikios is forthcoming in the work of Ilias Nesseris on higher education in Constantinople in the 12th century, and with further knowledge of Ioannikios' career, the date of O may need to be adjusted downward by a few decades.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: D in Prinz-Wecklein, Ambros. in Murray, W for Andr. (but Af for Rhes.) in Diggle

CITY: Milan

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Ambrosiana

SHELFMARK: S.P. 10/26c (current shelfmark); formerly referred to as F 205 inf.

DATE: 12th cent.


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: Sheets No. 19 and No. 20 contain Andr. 1-102 with dramatis personae and a few scholia; sheet No. 24 contains Rhes. 856-884 and 985-990 (or 992, but only illegible traces for last two lines).

TYPE AND FORMAT: Some brief notes on Andr.; none on Rhes.


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 341-342; Luisa Palla, "'Folia antiquissima, quibus Ilias obtegebatur'. Materiali per una storia dell' 'Ilias Picta' ambrosiana," in C. M. Mazzucchi, C. Pasini, eds., Nuove ricerche sui manoscritti greci dell'Ambrosiana: atti del convegno, Milano, 5-6 giugno 2003 (Milan 2004) 315-349; C. Castelli, "Euripides, Angelo Mai e l'Ilias Picta," in F. Gallo, ed., Miscellanea Graecolatina I (Milan 2013) 49-64.


These sheets of paper (of Arabic type, according to Palla) were separated by Angelo Mai from the famous late-antique (parchment) illustrations of the Iliad in Ambros. F 205 inf. The illustrations had been attached to them in a repair operation in the 12th century, according to the dating of the paper and the script (from the region of Calabria and Sicily) advocated by Palla (330-337). Most of the annotation written on the paper backing consists of Homeric commentary (D-scholia and the like), and extracts from Eur. Andr. and Rhes. were also written to serve as comments on the Homeric story being illustrated. The lines from Andr. accompany illustrations from Book 6, and Palla has made it likely that those from Rhesus do as well (the point being their information about Hector, not about Rhesus). The article of Palla contains a number of inaccuracies, as revealed by the inspection undertaken at my request by Luigi Battezzato (December 2009), to whom I owe reports of what is readable. There are apparently no annotations on Rhes., but several damaged ones survive for Andr., both written with the text excerpt and as part of the notes added in black or red on the images themselves. See now Castelli (cited above).

Manuscripts written after 1250


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: A in Matthiae, Dindorf, Schwartz, R in Cobet apud Geel

CITY: Vatican City

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

SHELFMARK: gr. 909

DATE: ca. 1250-1280


CATALOGUE (later than Turyn 1957): P. Schreiner, Codices Vaticani Graeci. Codices 867-932 (1988) 106-109

EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 2r-v: Hec. 1-31 with scholia, a replacement for the lost original; 3r-16v: Hec. 32-211, 257-711 (a page has been lost between 6v and 7r); 17r-18v replacement pages with Hec. 712-783 and some scholia on 17r only (2/3 of 18r and all of 18v are blank: λείπει by a diff. hand on 18v; so probably copied as much as could be read or as much as survived from 712-1069 in the original; apparently not by the same hand as 2r-2v, but similar: this one employs enlarged letters, especially at line-end to make lines appear approximately equal in length); 19v-23v: Hec. 1069-1295 Hec.; 24r-v: arg. Or.; 25r-64v: Or. 1-1204 and 1505-1693; 64v-66r: arg. Ph.; 66v-117v: Ph. (the play actually ends on 117r, but the long Peisander-scholion continues onto 117v); 117v-118r: arg. Med.; 118r-156v: Med.; 157r-v: arg. Hipp.; 157v-196v: Hipp.; 197r: arg. Alc.; 197v-228r Alc.; 228r-v: arg. Andr.; 228v-261r: Andr.; 261v: arg. Tro.; 261v-295r: Tro.; 295v: Hyp. Rhes.; 296r-298v: -315v: Rhes. 1-111; 299r-308v: Rhes. 152-550; 309r-312v Rhes. 631-791; 313r-v: 836-855 and 812-835 (folio bound in backwards: but see discussion below); fol. 314r-315v: Rhes. 856-940. Note that fol. 315r-v, with lines 899-940, was not with the manuscript when it was used by Schwartz, but rediscovered by H. Rabe: see RhMus 63 (1908) 419-422.

TYPE AND FORMAT: Old scholia with some additions apparently from the 11th-12th centuries; along with glosses comparable to those in MB, many additional glosses and short paraphrases interlinearly. The number of lines of poetic text per page varies greatly, usually from 18-21 lines, but occasionally as few as 10 or as many as 27. The fullest pages have scholia on three sides, with the top and bottom blocks of variable length; pages with fewer scholia usually have no bottom block, and may have scholia only in the side block only. Reference symbols are used regularly and lemmata not quite as regularly.


The text and marginal scholia and some interlinear glosses were written by a pair of scribes working closely together (probably 1250-1280). Later, other hands added corrections of the text and additional annotation between the lines and in the margins (and rarely made corrections or changes to the marginal scholia written by the original pair). I have discussed the sharing of the work by the partner scribes in Mastronarde 2017, Chapter 5. Here I confine myself to briefer comments. I use V for one of the partners and V1 for the other, modernizing Schwartz's use of A and A1. Note that Dindorf sometimes described as "manus recentissima in V" notes actually written by V1 and thus part of the original work on the codex. The hand referred to as V2 in Diggle's OCT and in my collations made corrections in the text and more rarely in the block of scholia, but added few annotations. The hand referred to as V3 in Diggle's OCT and in my collations (probably active active around 1300 or the decade or so after 1300) is a more cursive and informal hand. (Cavarzeran use for this cursive hand V with the subscript 2.) The infrequent notes that are by even later hands are referred to with the siglum Vrec. In addition, Schwartz reported the scholia on Hec. from the replacement page 2r-2v without remarking that these pages are not by the original hands; I use the siglum Vv for these scholia, which were apparently copied from the damaged original before it was discarded (note that in this process any visual distinction between annotations by the various hands has been lost). I use the same siglum for the few scholia on fol. 17r, which have every appearance of being copied from the original (note the slightly longer version of the sch. 741 than in B, and the confusion in sch. 736, which is paralleled elsewhere in V's scholia on Hecuba).

IMAGES USED: Prints for Orestes (scanned to allow magnification); for all plays images digitized from microfilm from the library, of mediocre quality for reading anything obscure; some autopsy checking May 2012. New high-resolution grayscale images of the pages of Hecuba were obtained in 2015, making it possible to decipher many scholia that were unreadable on other images. Finally, the whole has been collated from the new online images, with further autopsy checking in 2016 and 2017.

ONLINE IMAGES: Through the kindness of the Vatican Library and the Polonsky Foundation Digitization Project, excellent images of V have now been made available at:   

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 90-91; Matthiessen 46-47; Mastronarde–Bremer 3-4; Diggle 6; Cavarzeran, 37-40.


The pages have suffered damage to varying extents; some pages have been trimmed, sometimes even irregularly to accommodate additions in outer margin. The original material has been incorporated into fresh larger pages: this sometimes causes obscuring of the writing by the overlapping paper or attachment strip.

About folios 313r-v Turyn 90 wrote "the leaf 313 was reversed in the binding, the text on fol. 313v was later canceled." The cancelling is done by a grid of diagonal lines in red ink, and I detect no difference between this red and the rubricator's ink on the adjacent pages. Furthermore, Turyn's hypothesis leaves only 20 lines, 792-811, to fill both sides of the leaf that is now lost between 312 and 313, whereas the leaf should have had about 40 lines, 20 per side. I think a better hypothesis is that the missing sheet already contained 812-835 and that for some reason 812-835 were copied again in error, and the crossing out of the version on 313v occurred when this was noticed. Perhaps one page of the original was skipped (omitting 792-811), and when this was very soon noticed, a folio with 792-835 was prepared and added in, and the present leaf 313 reversed and the unneeded (and now out of order) repetition cancelled by the rubricator.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: T (in Dindorf, Schwartz; Taurin. or Cod. Taur. in Matthiae, the first of the two codices Academiae Taurinensis whose readings where reported to him by Amadeus Peyron)

CITY: Turin

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Nazionale


DATE: 1300-1350


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: Fol. 9r-v: arg. Or; 10r-66r: Or.; 66v-67r: arg. Ph.; 67v-111v Ph. 1-64, 83-1164 (the folio lost between 71 and 72 contained lines 65-82 of the play and scholia on lines 54 to 74; the absence of this folio was not reported by either Turyn or Mastronarde-Bremer)

IMAGES USED: Microfilms, and less often prints from microfilms (in which the scholia blocks are often not completely shown). Since 2014, very fine digital images.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 85; Matthiessen 60; Mastronarde-Bremer 5; Diggle 7;


Despite its date, C contains a very complete set of old scholia on Orestes and Phoenissae in a form closely related to M, B, and V; and Schwartz's edition gives an incomplete view both of its inventory of scholia (through neglect of most supralinear and marginal notes) and of its readings. The manuscript was burned around the edges in the fire that damaged the library in 1904; but the scholia have suffered almost no loss. The scholia and the accompanying glosses are in the same dark ink and same hand as the main text. There are additional glosses written later in much lighter ink, by a different hand (C2). These could not be reliably detected and deciphered on the microfilm, but are legible on the new images.

The missing folio in Phoen. is mentioned in the app. crit. on p. 257, 19 in Schwartz, but not in Turyn. I made a note of the omission in a collation of the poetic text in 1980, but I neglected to include this information at Mastronarde–Bremer 5, so that the Teubner edition and OCT of Phoen. also fail to record that lines 65-82 are missing from C.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: Par. A in Matthiae, E in Prinz-Wecklein

CITY: Paris

COLLECTION: Bibliothèque Nationale

SHELFMARK: grec 2712

DATE: ca. 1300


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: This manuscript is numbered by pages, not by recto and verso of each folio. The Euripidean contents are as follows: p.3: Moschopulean vita, and arg. Hec.; 4-17: Hec.; 18-19: arg. Or.; 19-38: Or.; 38-39: arg. Ph.; 39-59: Ph.; 59-60: arg. Andr.; 60-74: Andr.; 74: arg. Med.; 75-91: Med.; 91-92: arg. Hipp.; 92-106: Hipp. 1-1214; 111-114: Hipp. 1215-end. Pp. 107-110 contain part of Aristophanes, Plutus, out of order, and the remainder of the codex from p. 115 contains Sophocles and Aristophanes.

IMAGES USED: Microfilms and prints for different sections; downloaded images.


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 89-90; Matthiessen 43-44; Mastronarde–Bremer 4; Diggle 7; Cavarzeran 48; see the description dated 2012 that accompanies the online images.



Apart from the argumenta, this manuscript contributes little annotation. Glosses (with a few short scholia) are very sparse on the triad plays, somewhat more abundant on Andromache, Medea, and Hippolytus. The annotation seems to be all in the hand of the original scribe (in a smaller size and more cursive style). Most annotations are in the ink used for rubrication of the personae notae (Ar), but a few notes are in the dark ink of the text or a somewhat lighter brown ink (A), and for some short notes in the light ink it is hard to be sure they are actually the same hand. Both the red ink and the ink are now often faint and hard to read.


CITY: Milan

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Ambrosiana

SHELFMARK: C 44 sup.

DATE: 14th cent.


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: fol. 27r-37r: Hec. 773-1295; 37v-38v: arg. Or., but between arg. 2a ending near bottom of 37v and the προλογίζει sentence as last line of 38r before dram. pers. at top of 38v, there is a block of scholia from the first 25 lines (first on lines 15-25, with sch. 22.02 out of order between two sch. on 25, then a few scholia on lines 5-10); 38v-71v: Or.; 72r-72v: arg. Ph., 72v-104v Ph. 1-1650

IMAGES USED: Microfilms; then new digital images (grayscale).

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 340, Matthiessen 42, Mastronarde–Bremer 4


The main glossation is by the original hand of the text but using a purplish ink (Aa). A second set of glosses are in a cruder script and black ink (Aa2). Further glosses appear in a fainter ink (sometimes hard to distinguish from the original hand, but at other times extremely faint (the pale brown ink described in Mastronarde–Bremer): this is here called Aa3, since at Or. 132, for example, it can be seen that the darker gloss of Aa2 has been modified by Aa3. [The designation of the second and third hands was the opposite in Mastronarde–Bremer 4-5.]


CITY: Milan

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Ambrosiana

SHELFMARK: F 74 sup.

DATE: ca. 1300; (watermarks) 1305-1315 according to Irigoin 135 [=540]


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: (original part) fol. 29r-37r: Hec. 913-1295; 37v-38r: arg. Or.; 38v-40v: Or. 1-109; 43r-54r: Or. 110-635; 57r-64v: Or. 636-959; 65r-66v: 1087-1169; 67r-73v: Or. 1283-1600, 74r: Or. 1682-1693; 75r-76r: arg. Ph.; 76r-90v: Ph. 1-702

IMAGES USED: Microfilms; then new digital images (grayscale).

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 341, Matthiessen 42, Mastronarde-Bremer 5; J. Irigoin, "La tradition des tragiques grecs dans l'Italie méridionale," Bisanzio e l'Italia. Raccolta di studi in memoria di Agostino Pertusi, Milan 1982, 132-143 [= J. Irigoin, La tradition des textes grecs. Pour une critique historique, Paris 2003, 537-552]


The glossation in Ph. is all or almost all in a lighter ink, Ab2, and this hand also provides some glossation in Or., but there are also many glosses in the darker ink of the main text, Ab.


CITY: Mt. Athos

COLLECTION: Μονὴ Βατοπεδίου


DATE: 1420-1443


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: fol. 93r: vita; 93r-v: arg. Hec.; 93v-120v: Hec.; 120v-121r: arg. Or.; 121r-155r: Or; 155r-156v" arg. Ph.; 156v-190v: Ph.

IMAGES USED: microfiches and prints for various parts

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 121, Mastronarde-Bremer 14, Diggle 11, Günther 81; virtual catalogue entry on pp. 132-137 of R. S. Stefec, Mitteilungen aus Athos-Handschriften, Wiener Studien 127 (2014) 121-150.


The date is assigned because of the known period of activity of the scribe Gerard (or Girard) of Old Patras (RGK I.80 = II.107 = III.144; PLP 4142; N.G. Wilson in Revue d'histoire des textes 4 (1974) 139-142). Not yet explored or included in collations. According to old notes, in Ph. there are a very few old scholia by Gerard in the ink of the main text; some Moschopulean glosses in lighter ink (red, according to Steffec's description). See Günther for description of scholia on Orestes by Gerard and by a later hand.


CITY: Cremona

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Governativa


DATE: ca. 1350, or 1330-40 according to Günther


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: (original pages) 10r-19r: Hec. 644-1295;19v: arg. Or.; 19v-42v: Or. 1-1693; 42v-43r: arg. Ph.; 43v-55v, 58r-61v: Ph. 1-1065, 1231-1586; (replacement pages) 1r: vita Eur.; 1r-v: arg. Hec.; 2r-9v: Hec. 1-643; 56r-57v: Ph. 1066-1230; 62r-64r: Ph. 1587-1763

IMAGES USED: Microfilm for Or. and print from microfilm for Ph.; images (digitized from B&W microfilm) of the whole manuscript; some color cellphone photos taken by Mario Telò

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 333, Matthiessen 38, Mastronarde-Bremer 5, Günther 225


Cr is very closely related in its scholia to Ox; indeed in some places where Ox differs slightly from Cr, it appears that the error in Ox could be due to a misreading of ambiguous letters or compendia in Cr; elsewhere, both manuscripts have the same glosses misplaced by a line or two. Günther believes that Cr and Ox are both copied from the same source, and there are slight differences that suggest Ox is not copied from Cr; the errors based on misreading would then imply that this source was in a hand very similar to that of Cr.

In the original annotation of Cr, using the same hand and dark brown ink as the main text, there are only a few discursive old scholia, but many glosses; the pages have two columns of text (with continuity across the columns), and only rarely is the text in the right column interrupted for a discursive scholion. Cr uses red ink only for the personarum notae. The replacement pages of the 15th century contain heavy glossation and short marginal notes (mostly etymological) in several hands different from the main scribe of the text, and some of these later hands have also added a few annotations to the original pages, especially for the first few surviving pages of Hec. and then more sporadically: in Or. A more refined classification of the later hands will be needed when the scholia to Hec. are collated; for the time being I use Cr2 to designate an upright, relatively neat, but clumsy hand writing with a very fine stroke in black ink; Cr3 to designate a more cursive, irregular, and sloppy hand, also in black ink.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: Y in Schwartz for hyp. Hec.

CITY: Venice

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana

SHELFMARK: greco Z. 468 (=653)

DATE: late 13th cent.


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 146v: arg. Hec; 147r-157v: Hec.l 157v-158r: arg. Or.; 158r-173r: Or.; 173r-v: arg. Ph.; 173v-190r: Ph.; 190r-v: arg. Med.; 190v: Med. 1-42

IMAGES USED: digital images

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 360, Matthiessen 47-8, Mastronarde-Bremer 5-6, Diggle 7


The argumenta are written by the main scribe in the same dark ink as the text; the same scribe added some glosses and the personarum notae in a flat brown ink (which can appear medium dark when the pen is freshly re-inked, but is more often rather light). These glosses are designated with a plain siglum F. Many more glosses are added in a very faint pinkish ink and are recorded as F2. Least common are the additions of F3, a more regular, but not very elegant hand plausibly dated ca. 1500 by Turyn.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: Haun in Diggle, C in Prinz-Wecklein

CITY: Copenhagen

COLLECTION: Det Kongelige Bibliotek

SHELFMARK: Gamle Kongelig Samling 417

DATE: ca. 1475


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r-v: arg. Med.; 2r-29r: Med.; 29v-30r: arg. Hec.; 30r-55r: Hec; 55v-56r: arg. Or.; 56v-89v: Or.; 90r-91r: arg. Ph.; 91v-124v: Ph.; 125r-139v: sch. on Ph. 1-267; 140r-v: arg. Hi.; 141r-168v: Hi.; 169r-v: arg. Alc.; 170r-190v: Alc.; 190v-191r: arg. Andr.; 191v-217r: Andr.; 217r-v: arg. Tro.; 217v-243r; 243r-v: arg. Rh.; 244r-263r: Rh.

IMAGES USED: Scans of Turyn photos (all non-triad plays, and a few folios of Hec. and Ph.); microfilm for arg. and text of Ph. No image yet for arg. Or.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 329, Matthiessen 42, Mastronarde GRBS 26 (1985) 102-104


May be collated for argumenta; there is a single brief annotation on Medea 500; otherwise the only scholia are those on Phoen. 1-267, in a block after the play along with the Peisander scholion and other minor argumenta, on fols. 125r-139v.


CITY: Florence

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana

SHELFMARK: Conventi soppressi 66

DATE: ca. 1291, acc. to Matthiessen, Scriptorium 36 (1982) 255-258


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 50r-59v: Hec.; 59v-60r: arg. Or.; 60r-72v: Or. 1-1681

IMAGES USED: microfilm

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 338; Matthiessen 40-41; Diggle 8


There is a narrow column of scholia at the beginning of Hec. on folio 50r, but otherwise this marginal space is only sporadically used, while there are occasional annotations in the bottom margin. There are also scattered interlinear notations. All notes seem to be the work of the original scribe. The lower corners of the pages have been damaged and sometimes writing has been lost.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: C in Schwartz (for Rhes.)

CITY: Florence

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana


DATE: 1300-1320


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: The plays of Euripides appear on folios 68r-232r; for a thorough description of the contents see Turyn, 233-237. The argumenta, which are not present for all plays, occur as follows: 68r: arg. Suppl., 84r: arg. Cycl.; 89r: arg. Hcld.; 96v: arg. Her.; 119r: arg. Rhes.; 125r: arg. Ionis; 134r: arg. Iph. Taur.; 176v: arg. Med., arg. Alc. (these two were added by Triclinius); 184r: arg. Andr. (in an ink that looks like that of Triclinius' additions, but not written by Triclinius himself according to Turyn and Zuntz; the hand is very close to Triclinius', but, for example, the backward lean of many epsilons is much more extreme than in Triclinius' hand)

IMAGES USED: Online images; scans of Turyn photos of a few pages of Euripidean section.

ONLINE IMAGES:    (enter plut.32.02 in the field parole chiave and click on Cerca)

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 222-258; G. Zuntz, An Inquiry on the Transmission of the Plays of Euripides (Cambridge 1965); Matthiessen 39-40, Mastronarde-Bremer 7, Diggle 8


L will be used mainly for arguments and the lists of dramatis personae. For non-triad plays there are also sporadic metrical annotations made by Triclinius (cf. Zuntz 6-13; Matthiae V.595-600; Dindorf IV.210-219). There are also sporadic glosses of other kinds. For Orestes 1-500 these are by a hand designated here as L2, who uses a lighter ink than the the main scribe; but I have found one gloss (160 ἐργασιῶν over ἐργμάτων) written by the original scribe.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: C in Matthiae, Dindorf

CITY: Munich

COLLECTION: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

SHELFMARK: gr. 560

DATE: 14th century (early therein?)


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 7r-v: Hec. 1270-1295; 7v: Or. dram. pers. list and Or. 1-3; 8r-v: arg. Or. (including dram. pers. list again); 8v-10v: Or. 4-54; 11r-56v: Or. 102-1693; 56v-58v: arg. Ph.; 58v-99v: Ph. 1-1586; 100r-101v: Ph. 1632-1742

IMAGES USED: Microfilm; grayscale images digitized from microfilm. These images are now publicly accessible, although the codex has not yet received the full-scale re-imaging in color used for some other manuscripts in this library.


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 344; Matthiessen 129; Mastronarde-Bremer 7; Diggle 8.


Written by more than one scribe, but annotation and text appear to be by the same hand on each page. Most of the manuscript is written in a dark ink, but in some places there is a lighter ink for pers. notae and an occasional lemma, and for a few pages the lighter ink is used for the text and darker ink for the annotation.


CITY: Madrid

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Nacional


DATE: ca. 1300 according to N. G. Wilson, JHS 96 (1976) 172


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: (original parts) 33r-41r: Or. 1276-1693; 41r-42r: arg. Ph.; 42r-73v: Ph. 1-1708

IMAGES USED: Microfilm (Ph.) and microfiche (Or.).; digital images acquired 2016.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 339-340; Mastronarde-Bremer 7-8; Diggle 8.


This manuscript does not contain the beginning of Orestes and so has not been collated so far. I examined the original briefly in Madrid in 2011. The text is in black ink, sometimes greyer and sometimes brownish; pers. notae and some annotation in red ink (these appear to be old scholia), and other annotation in black ink, and finally some in lighter ink and smaller script, which seems later. The annotation consists of a mixture of basic glosses, some Moschopulean notes, and the select old scholia. Mt will be very challenging to collate, because on the microfilm it is very hard to detect the notes on lighter ink and to distinguish differences in other shades of ink.


CITY: Naples

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Nazionale


DATE: early 16th cent. (later than Aldine edition)


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 25r-v: Tricl. Life; 26r-27r: arg. Hec.; 27v-65r: Hec.; 66r-v: arg Or.; 67r-107r: Or. 1-1151; 110r-v: arg. Andr.; 111r-143r: Andr.; 144r-v: arg. Hi.; 144v-182v: Hi.; 184r-205r: block of scholia on Hipp.; 206r-207r: arg Ph.; 207v-249r: Ph.

IMAGES USED: scans of Turyn photos (not a complete set for this ms)

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 345-346, Matthiessen 129


Not yet explored much; probably of little importance for the triad, but said to be useful for Hipp. and Andr.


CITY: Naples

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Nazionale

SHELFMARK: Vindobonensis graecus 17

DATE: ca. 1500


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r: arg. Hec.; 1v-38r: Hec.; 39-rv: arg. Or.; 39v-84r: Or.; 84v-85v: arg. Ph.; 85v-138v: Ph.;139r-v: arg. Hi.; 139v-183v: Hi.; 184r-v: arg. Med.; 184v-228r: Med.; 228r-v: arg Andr.; 228v-263r: Andr.

IMAGES USED: digital images from library

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 348-351;Matthiessen 129; M. Grimaldi, "Gli scolî all' Ippolito di Euripide nel Cod. Neapol. Vind. Gr. 17," Rendiconti della Accademia di Archeologia Lettere e Belle Arti,, nuova ser., 68 (1999) 39-51.


Not yet explored much; Matthiessen doubts Turyn's claim that the triad was transcribed directly from R. Should be explored more fully for Hipp., Med., Andr.


CITY: Oxford

COLLECTION: Bodleian Library

SHELFMARK: Auct. T.4.10

DATE: older part 1326, later part late 15th century


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: (older part, scribe Ioannes) 28r: dram. pers. list for Hec.; 27r-73v: Hec.; 73v-74r arg. Or.; 74v-130v: Or.; (later part, scribe Georgios Alexandru) 1r: arg. Hipp.; 1v-27v: Hipp.; 131r-133r: arg. Thom. Ph.; 133v-140v: Ph. 1-425

IMAGES USED: new digital images

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 351-2; Matthiessen 43; Günther 226-227


In the older part (Hec., Or.), Joannes wrote, in a gray ink, the text and abundant interlinear annotation, but only a few marginal scholia; most of the interlinear notes are in a lighter gray ink. Additional glosses and marginal scholia are added by a later Western hand, Ox 2; some of these are in red ink. In the younger part, all elements of the manuscript were written by Georgios, who uses rubrication only for pers. notae, headings, and a few γνώ(μη) marks.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: (Vatican part) Rom. C in Matthiae; (Florence part) G in Prinz-Wecklein

CITY: Vatican, Florence

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana

SHELFMARK: Palatinus gr. 287, Conventi soppressi 172

DATE: 1320-1325

NUMÉRO DIKTYON: 66019, 15874

EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: (Vatican part) 58r: arg. Andr., Andr.; 70v: arg. Med., Med.; 84r: arg. Su., Su.; 95r: arg. Rh., Rh.; 104v: arg. Ion., Ion; 119r: arg. IT, IT; 133r-147v: IA; 147v-148r: arg. Dan., Danae 1-65; 150v: arg. Hi., Hi.162v: arg. Alc., Alc.; 173r: arg. Tro., Tro.; 185r: arg. Ba., Ba; 197v: arg. Cycl.,, Cycl. 203r: arg.Hcld.; 203r-211v: Hcld. 1-1002; (Florence part) 1r: Hcld. 1003-1055; 1v-13v: arg. Her., Her.; 13v-28r: arg. Hel., Hel.; 28r-40r: dram. pers. El, El.; 40r-51v: hyp. Hec., Hec.; 51v-67r: arg. Or., Or.; 67r-83v: arg. Ph., Ph.

IMAGES USED: scans of Turyn photos of the Florence part; microfiche of part of Vatican part; I do not have immediate access to the printed facsimile: Euripidis quae in codicibus Palatino Graeco inter Vaticanos 287 et Laurentiano Conv. Soppr. 172 (olim Abbatiae Florentinae 2664) inveniuntur. Arte photografica vero R. Sarsaini, Romae [et] Fratrum Alinari, Florentiae. Phototypice expressa cura et impensis J.A. Spranger. 2 vols. 1939-1946.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn, 258-264, Zuntz 1-15 and passim; Matthiessen 40, Mastronarde-Bremer 8, Diggle 8


Collated for arg. Or. so far. There are a few metrical marginalia on IT and IA entered by the rubricator (Ioannes Katrares: Zuntz 289), and I have found a few glosses on Orestes that appear on Turyn's photos to be in the same or a similar red ink. These are provisionally recorded as P2.


CITY: Paris

COLLECTION: Bibliothèque Nationale

SHELFMARK: grec 1087

DATE: ca. 1300; (watermarks] 1305-1315 according to Irigoin 135 [=540]


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 49r-50r: arg. Or., Or. 1-31

IMAGES USED: scans of Turyn photos

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 353; J. Irigoin, "La tradition des tragiques grecs dans l'Italie méridionale," Bisanzio e l'Italia. Raccolta di studi in memoria di Agostino Pertusi, Milan 1982, 132-143 [= J. Irigoin, La tradition des textes grecs. Pour une critique historique, Paris 2003, 537-552]


Pages crowded with old scholia and some interlinear glosses. Turyn notes that the hand looks South Italian, and this is confirmed by Irigoin.


CITY: Reims

COLLECTION: Bibliothèque de la Ville

SHELFMARK: 1306 (J 733)

DATE: ca. 1290-1300


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r-12v: Hec. 81-end; 12v-13r: arg. Or.: 13r-32r: Or.; 32r: arg. Ph.; 32v-45v: Ph. 1-123 and 879-end (but the pages are now bound out of order as follows: 32v (1-26), 41r-v (1383-1470), 33r-34v (27-123), 35r-36v (879-1046), 39r-40v (1200-1382), 37r-v (1046-1127), 42r-45v (1471-1766), 38r-v (1128-1198), then 12 later pages numbered i-xii, with Ph. 273-808

IMAGES USED: Digital images from the Library (grayscale)

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 354, Matthiessen 45, Mastronarde-Bremer 8, Diggle 8-9



PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: q in Diggle for Tro. 611-1332; H in Prinz-wecklein

CITY: London

COLLECTION: British Library

SHELFMARK: Harley 5743

DATE: ca. 1475


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 63r-65v: Alc. 1029-end; 65v-66v: arg. Rh.; 67r-86v: Rh.; 86v-87r: hyp. Tro.; 87r-113r: Tro.

IMAGES USED: Scans of Turyn photos.



Contains brief scholia on Rhes. 826, 920,Tro. 396.


CITY: Vatican

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

SHELFMARK: graecus 1135

DATE: very late 13th cent.


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r-10v: sch. on Hec. in continuous block; 11r-v: arg. Hec.; 11v-43v: Hec.; 43v-44v: arg. Or.; 44v-87r: Or.; 87r-101v: sch. on Or. 1-1130 in continuous block; 102v-103r: arg. Ph.; 104r-148r: Ph.

IMAGES USED: Prints for Orestes, microfilm for Phoenissae, prints from microfilm for Hecuba; some autopsy inspection conducted in May 2012 and April 2016.

ONLINE IMAGES: As of late 2015, images of R have been made available at:   

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 94-96; Matthiessen 47; Mastronarde-Bremer 8-9; Diggle 9.


Written in South Italy. Both the material and the script are poor, and this is a palimpsest with the Euripides text on top. For Hecuba the scholia through line 981 plus a few on lines 1076, 1200, 1213 are written in a block on fols. 1r-10v, before the text of the play. In the blank space in the lower half of 10v a later hand has added a brief narrative of Orion's blinding by Oinopion and the cure of his blindness, which may be considered a scholion on Hec. 1102. On the first few folios for the text of Hecuba, there are interlinear glosses and some marginal scholia in lighter ink and a smaller and fuzzy script; after a few pages one can see in addition some glosses in a very fine black script, and a larger sloppier hand e.g. on 17r in margin; later in this play many pages have no annotation at all. Marginal notes resume on 34r and continue to the end of Hecuba: these marginal notes cover the last 350 lines of the play, for which there are only a couple of scholia in the block on 1r-10v. For Orestes some marginal scholia appear from the beginning to 53r, with very few thereafter; the poor legibility of these notes is apparently due to damage and not deliberate erasure (the pages have also been trimmed, losing words in the top margin); the glosses are either fuzzy and similar in tint to the main text or in a sharper and blacker script. A fuller set of scholia is written (through Or. 1130) after the end of Orestes, on fols. 87v-101v, with reference numbers keyed back to the text. For Phoenissae there are glosses and a few marginal notes, but the glosses become sparse later in the play. I use Ra to indicate the scholia that are in the margins of the text and Rb to indicate those in the continuous scholia on fols. 87v-101v. For the supralinear glosses I use Rs for those in the browner, thicker script and R2s for those in the blacker, finer script, but the style of the second script is such that it could be the same scribe.

Between the last scholion on Orestes (one-third of the way down on fol. 101v) and the arg. Ph. (on fol. 102v), there is a vocabulary note (distinction between senses of δρᾶμα), followed by a narrative on Daidalos and Ikaros that does not match any text in TLG, a quotation of Arist. Nub. 37, and several more notes on vocabulary, not connected to words in Euripides (e.g., distinction between μειονέκτης and πλεονέκτης, ἠλίθιος and ἀκόλαστος).


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: Fl. 33 in Matthiae and Dindorf

CITY: Florence

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana


DATE: ca. 1290-1300


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: (original parts) 105v-114r: Hec. 572-end; 114r-115v: arg Or.; 115v-134v: Or.; 134v: arg. Ph.; 135r-150v: Ph. 1-1726

IMAGES USED: Scans of Turyn photos; online images.

ONLINE IMAGES:    (enter 32.33 in the field parole chiave and click on Cerca)

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 337-338; Matthiessen 40; Mastronarde-Bremer 9; Diggle 9.


Scholia on Hecuba 572-end, Orestes, and Phoenissae 1-1661; on fol. 150v, containing Phoen. 1662-1726, a strip of paper has been glued on for repair, but there is no sign that any scholia have been covered by this repair. The same scribe has used a variety of inks. Some annotations are in dark ink, some in red ink (Rfr), some in a brownish ink lighter than the ink of the text. The red is used inconsistently for some glosses, initials of scholia, first words of scholia, or an entire scholion. The glosses recorded as Rf are in dark ink, occasionally shading toward light brown when the ink on the pen is running out; other glosses are in red ink (again, Rfr), and a few are in a light yellowish brown ink, recorded as Rf2.


CITY: Vatican

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

SHELFMARK: graecus 1332

DATE: 14th cent.


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r-8r: Ph. 1001-1766


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 359, Matthiessen 68, Mastronarde-Bremer 9



PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: W in Schwartz for vita Euripidis

CITY: Vienna

COLLECTION: Oesterreichische Nationalbibliothek

SHELFMARK: Phil. gr. 119

DATE: ca. 1300


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r-v: arg. Hec.; 1v-13v: Hec; 13v: arg. Or.; 14r-31v: Or.; 32r-v: arg. Ph.; 32v-45v: Phoen. 1-1271; 46r-53v: later replacement for Ph. 1272-1766 (no scholia)

IMAGES USED: Digital images from library.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 361-362, Matthiessen 48, Mastronarde-Bremer 9, Diggle 9


The scholia for Phoenissae cover only lines 1-1028.


CITY: Salamanca

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Universitaria


DATE: dated 1326 by the scribe Ioannes Kalliandros


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 114v-115v: etymologies and other notes (ἐτυμολογίαι καὶ ἄλλἄττα τοῦ πρώτου δράματος τοῦ εὐριπίδους τοῦ περὶ τῆς ἑκάβης); 115v-116r: metrical definitions; 116r-117r: short treatise on tragedy (ἰσαακίου τοῦ τζέτζου ἐξήγησις εἰς τὸν εὐριπίδην); 117r-119r: vitae Eur.; 119r-v: arg. Hec.; 119v-143r (143v blank): Hec.; 144r-v: arg. Or.; 144v-169r; 169r-170v: arg. Ph; 170v-206r: Ph. (Ph. 1-4 and the initial sch. appear on 169v, but then long Peisander sch. occurs, and on 170v play text begins again from line 1)

IMAGES USED: scans from microfiche through Ph. 114; microfilm; more recently, new digital images; some autopsy inspection in June 2011

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 96, Matthiesen 45, Mastronarde-Bremer 9, Diggle 9; Antonio Tovar, Catalogue Codicum Graecorum Universitatis Salamantinae. I. Collection Universitatis Antiquae [Acta Salamanticensia, Filosofia y Letras, XV.4 (1963)] 11, 12, 21-25, 88.


The whole codex is the work of one scribe, although his hand is variable in spacing and size and features great variety in the forms of individual letters. The scribe writes small letters in a thick script, leading to many ambiguities. Blocks of scholia occur at irregular intervals, and there are many supralinear annotations and a few in margins of the text (which is sometimes in one column and sometimes in two columns). The scribe also at times neglects the line divisions of the iambic trimeters, and this may have contributed to some instances in which glosses are misplaced. Rubrication is sparingly used and hard to see except on the newest color images: red ink is used for marking off most individual scholia with a corner bracket, or sometimes a vertical red stroke through the enlarged capital initial (in black); also on some pages a red vertical stroke is placed to left of lines of Eur. so the reader can detect them in the disordered arrangement of text and scholia.

The miscellany that appears before the triad in S consists of three parts: (1) etymologies and other notes on vocabulary, mostly related to words found in Hecuba; (2) definitions of some metrical terms; (3) a short treatise ascribed to Isaac Tzetzes about tragedy and the genres of ancient poetry (perhaps rather the work of Ioannes Tzetzes). The first two of these parts are also found on fols. 145v-146v of Florence, 31.03 (written 1287 by Manuel Spheneas) = B of Aesch.: see full bibliography at bmlonline, and cf. West’s edition of Aesch.; Turyn, Dated Greek Manuscripts in Libraries of Italy; Herington, Older Sch. Prom Bound; O. L Smith in Mnem. Supp. 37 (1975). A small portion of the first item is also extant in Sa at the end of the triad (fol. 180r), and many of the individual items are found scattered in Y at the appropriate location of Hec. (Recently, several have also been found in Pr.) Teresa Martinez Manzano of the Universidad de Salamanca, who has studied S, pointed out to me that S (in Oppian and the miscellany) is a descendant of Laur. 31.03 (which may once have had a Euripides triad following the Aeschylus). An interim edition of the first section is provided in a separate working paper.   


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: V in Schwartz, for vita Euripidis, hyp. Hec.

CITY: Vatican

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

SHELFMARK: graecus 1345

DATE: ca. 1300


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 95r-95v: vita Eur.; 95v: arg. Eur. -96v-97r genealogical scholia and arg. Hec.; 97r-123r: Hec; 123r-v: arg. Or.; 123v-153v: Or; 154r-178v: Ph.; 179r-v: sch. on final lines of Ph., and Peisander sch.; 180r: etymologies and other notes (opening lines of the same miscellany found in S and in Laur. 31.03)

TYPE AND FORMAT: The scholia are disposed in blocks at irregular points, sometimes above and below the two columns of poetic text, sometimes in a single block at top or bottom or filling the whole page. Sometimes scholia end up on pages after the lemma, and for some sections after a particular block of poetic lines, the discursive scholia on those lines are written in one block before the next section of text begins. See, for instance, the blocks of scholia on Hecuba on folios 115r to 117r, where the scholia are also numbered in sequence in the margin, continuing from one block to the next, although no corresponding reference numbers are visible in the poetic text.

IMAGES USED: prints for Or., Ph.; print from microfilm for Hec.; some autopsy inspection in May 2012 and April 2016.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 96, Matthiessen 47, Mastronarde-Bremer 10, Diggle 9-10; on the scribe Theodoros, see Repertorium der griechischen Kopisten, 800-1600, III #224.


The scribe intersperses most of the scholia in blocks that alternate with short blocks of the poetic text, and text and scholia are of the same size; there are also supralinear glosses and a few short marginal annotations. In the first part of Orestes the scholia block runs beyond the page on which the corresponding text occurs, and in order to get back into closer aliognment of scholia and text the scribe seems to have omitted scholia on a stretch of lines. The scribe uses black ink for the text and scholia; a dark brown ink for some of the interlinear glosses; a brown ink for most notae personarum; and an extremely faint reddish gray ink for a few notae personarum and for initials of scholia, or starting ar fol. 128r for whole lemmata. This light ink has often faded almost to invisibility and sometimes cannot be detected on images; even on the original it is at times hard to discern whether an initial was omitted or has faded out.


CITY: Florence

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana

SHELFMARK: plut.31.03

DATE: 1287, as dated by the scribe Manuel Spheneas


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: fol. 145v-146r: miscellany of etymologies and other notes on Hecuba (the codex at present contains no plays of Euripides)


ONLINE IMAGES:    (enter plut.31.03 in the field parole chiave and click on Cerca)

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Turyn, The Manuscript Tradition of the Tragedies of Aeschylus (New York 1943) 54-55 [siglum B for Aeschylus]


The Salamance ms S copied the miscellany of notes from Sb. See the discussion above under S.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: Diggle used Zv for this fragmentary manuscript, but I reserve that siglum for the unrelated fragmentary earlier manuscript that survives in fols. 31r-53r of this same composite codex.

CITY: Vatican

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

SHELFMARK: graecus 1824

DATE: 14th cent.


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 81r-85v: Or. 1385-1557; 86r-v: Ph. 802-842, 87r-v: Or. 1558-1591

IMAGES USED: Photographs; autopsy inspection May 2012

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 359-60; P. Canart, Codices Vaticani Graeci 1745-1962 (Vatican City 1970) 240-250; Mastronarde GRBS 26 (1985) 99; Diggle 13, 92 n. 38, 106, 149


Vat. gr. 1824 and 1825 are two parts of a composite collection of texts, among which the Euripidean part (Zv) preserves part of Phoenissae. But unrelated folios are also bound in, as is the case with 81r-87v in Vat. gr. 1824, here called Vd. All the elements of these pages are probably the work of the same scribe, but there are different inks: a dark brown ink for text, a lighter, yellowish brown ink for interlinear notes, and the darker ink again for a further stage of interlinear notes (which seem to have been added after the lighter ones).


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: O in Schw., Y in Diggle for Andr.

CITY: Vatican

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

SHELFMARK: Ottobonianus graecus 339

DATE: 16th cent.


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 158r-176v: sch. on Andr.; 177r-186r: sch. on Hec.

IMAGES USED: print from microfilm for 158r-177r

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 355; Schwartz, Mélanges Graux 651ff.


Vo is a main witness for the scholia on Andr.; Schwartz showed that the Hecuba scholia are copied page for page from the fols. 1r-10v of R.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: Pv in Diggle for Hipp.

CITY: Vatican

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

SHELFMARK: Palatinus graecus 343

DATE: ca. 1500, written by (Ioannes) Gregoropoulos


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r-39r: Ph. 63-1766; 41r-54v: Hipp. 20-386, 447-939

IMAGES USED: microfilm

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 357, Mastronarde-Bremer 14


Not yet examined.



CITY: Mt. Athos


SHELFMARK: 161 (now 209)

DATE: ca. 1300


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r-6v: Ph. 1150-1766; 6v: arg. Hi.; 7r-18r: Hi.; 18v-30v: Medea 1-1338

IMAGES USED: microfilm for 1r-11r only; scans of Turyn photos for all; newer digital images received from National Bank Cultural Foundation: Center for History and Palaeography, Athens, with the permission of Monk Theologos

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 325, Mastronarde-Bremer 10


Fols. 1-16 are written by one scribe, and 17-30 by another (changeover at Hi. 1352.1353). Annotation not yet examined in detail. Glosses and a few scholia on Ph. and the first 500 lines or so of Hi.; thereafter scholia only on Hi. 1464, 1465, Med. 1181, 1333 (this last is illegible on the image).


CITY: Venice

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana

SHELFMARK: greco 469 (col. 799)

DATE: 1413


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 2r: abortive versions of arg. Hec. (heading and two lines crossed out: ἀγαμέμνων ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀπερχόμενος εἰς τὸν πόλεμον κατέλοιπε φύλακα τῆς αὐτοῦ; heading repeated, then only first lines μετὰ τὴν τῆς ἰλίου πολιορκίαν ... μͅίαν τῶν θυγατέρων πριάμου) (2v blank); 3r-v: arg. Hec. (in full, with new heading); 4r-v: dram. pers.; sch. on first lines of Hec.; (no folio labeled as 5) 6r-51r: Hec.; 51r-v: arg. Or.; 52r-110-v: Or.; 110v-111r: arg. Ph.; 111r-169v: Ph.

IMAGES USED: microfilms, scanned images from prints from microfilm for Or.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 68-73, 158; Matthiessen 50; Mastronarde-Bremer 15, 26-28; Günther 147-148


This manuscript is noteworthy in that it appears to be the source of paraphrasing scholia found in Arsenius' edition (he appears to have shortened Yv's paraphrases by omitting the constant repetition of each word of the text before its paraphrasing synonym). Collating these paraphrases is not yet a high priority.


CITY: Cambridge

COLLECTION: University Library

SHELFMARK: Nn 3.14 (second half)

DATE: second half 15th cent.


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 122r-151v: Hec.; 152r-v: blank; 153r-v: arg. Or.; 154r-207v: Or.

IMAGES USED: microfilm; very brief autopsy June 2010

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 180, Matthiessen 51, Diggle 12, Günther 223


Not yet collated. If we ignore the 16th cent. glosses that occur in the first pages of Hec., there are, by the main scribe, sporadic supralinear notes and very few marginal notes in Hec., almost all late in the play; glosses and a few marginal notes in Or. These are said to be of mixed nature, with a few Thoman elements.

Manuscripts with Moschopulean scholia


CITY: Oxford

COLLECTION: Bodleian Library

SHELFMARK: Auct. F.3.25

DATE: ca. 1330-1340


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 98r-v: vita Eur.; 98v: arg. Hec.; 99r-126v: Hec.; 126v-127r: arg Or; 127v-159r: Or.; 159r-v: arg. Ph.; 159v-194r: Ph.

IMAGES USED: prints for Or., microfilm for Hec. and Ph.; some autopsy May 2010

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 42, Matthiessen 49, Mastronarde-Bremer 10, Diggle10; Günther 38


Red ink is used for ornamentation, initials of paragraphs, of headings, etc. in arg., for pers. notae in text, and for the γνωμικόν abbreviations. The text is in brownish black ink, in a few places blacker, written in thickish strokes; scholia and glosses are in a lighter brownish ink, in finer strokes, but a few are additions made by a corrector in black ink (X2), and the same hand made some minor corrections in the scholia and in the text.


CITY: Oxford

COLLECTION: Bodleian Library

SHELFMARK: Barocci 120

DATE: ca. 1320-1330


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r: vita Eur.; 1r-v: hyp. Hec.; 2r-31r: Hec.; 31r-v: arg. Or.; 32r-68v: Or.; 69r blank; 69v: arg. Ph.; 70r-109v: Ph.

IMAGES USED: prints for Or., microfilm for Hec. and Ph.; some autopsy May 2010; online images available as of 2014

ONLINE IMAGES:    (enter "barocci 120" in the search field)

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 98, Matthiessen 49, Mastonarde-Bremer 11, Diggle 10, Günther 39; on the scribe Ioannes, known to have worked with Planudes and Nikephoros Moschopoulos ca. 1300, see Repertorium der griechischen Kopisten, 800-1600, II #271.


The manuscript as a whole consists of sections written by several scribes, as described by Günther; and the annotation is sometimes entered by the main scribe and sometimes supplied by a different scribe (see Günther). The main text is in light brown ink on fols. 1r-9v, 17v (part of Hec.) and 69v-87v (part of Phoen.); in black ink on fols. 10r-68v (rest Hec., all Or.), 88r-109v (rest Phoen.); red is used for initials and for notae personarum. The scholia are sometimes in the same ink as the text and sometimes in a contrasting color (black on brown ink pages, or brown on black ink pages). On some pages of Hecuba some notes are in black while others are in light gray. Water damage has affected the scholia on many pages. Occasionally I use Xa2 to distinguish what seems to be a different hand adding a gloss on a page already glossed by the main hand (e.g., for Hec. on fol. 2v, the glosses in line 40).


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: Flor. 76 in Matthiae and Dinforf

CITY: Florence

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana

SHELFMARK: Conventi soppressi 71

DATE: early 14th cent., perhaps 1310-1320


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: [using numbers in lower left of each recto] 124r: vita Eur.; 124r-v: hyp. Hec.; 124v-154v: Hec.; 154v: arg. Or.; 155r-197r: Or.; 197v: arg. Ph.; 198r-244v: Ph.1-1687; [using numbers in the upper right] 117r: vita Eur.; 117r-v: arg. Hec.; 117v-147v: Hec.; 147v: arg. Or.; 148r-190r: Or.; 190v: arg. Ph.; 191r-237v: Ph. 1-1687

IMAGES USED: microfilm, some prints, scans from select pages in Turyn photographs, digital images for most of Hec.; some autopsy May 2013

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 98, Matthiessen 49, Mastronarde-Bremer 12, Diggle 10, Günther 40


Text, scholia, and glosses are in the same ink by the same hand. A few corrections by a later hand, Xb2.


CITY: Oxford

COLLECTION: Bodleian Library

SHELFMARK: Laud gr. 54

DATE: 14th cent., perhaps ca. 1330


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r-6v: Hec. 1-284; 7r-38r: Or. 165-1693; 38v blank;39r: arg. Ph.; 39r-77r: Ph.

IMAGES USED: digital images; some autopsy May 2010

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 139-140; Günther 41


Black ink for text, red for adornment, pers. notae, initials of marginal sch.; the interlinear scholia are partly in red, partly in dark ink, and partly in a light grayish brown ink (Xo2), some of which are marked with πγ (Günther speculates that this is for Πεπαγωμένος); the relative proportions of the different colors of the glosses varies from page to page. Inks can sometimes be difficult to distinguish on the grayscale digital images, but the first hand also writes in a neater script, while the later hand (or hands?) writes more irregularly and casually. The first hand offers mainly pure Moscholopulean annotation, while the later hand draws on other sources.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: Q in Schwartz, for vita Euripidis, hyp. Hec.

CITY: Milan

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Ambrosiana

SHELFMARK: L 39 sup.

DATE: ca. 1320


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: unnumbered damaged folio before fol. 1 (called I by Turyn, IV by Günther): vita Eur. (recto and top of verson), arg. Hec. (rest of verso); 1r-24v: Hec.; 24v-25r: arg. Or.; 25r-54r: Or.;54v: arg. Ph.; 55r-87v: Ph.

IMAGES USED: microfilm, then grayscale digital images

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 342, 164, Matthiessen 42-43, Mastronarde-Bremer 6-7, Diggle 8, Günther 57-59


Written by a learned scribe, possibly Georgios Phrankopulos, who added largely Moschopulean annotation (with frequent variation from the standard form in XXaXbT), but also provided some other scholia, possibly of his own composition. The marginal scholia are in the same blackish brown ink as the main text, while the interlinear glossation by the same hand is in red (like the lemmata and personarum notae). A later addition in faint ink at Or. 234 is designated as G2. At the end of Hec. G has in right margin ὁμοῦ στίχοι ͵ασλγʹ: +εὐριπίδου ὀρέστης:

The scribe appears to be the same one who copied a large etymological dictionary in Vat. gr. 7 around 1310, and Gaul 2008 178-182 argues that the author of the dictionary, Georgios Phrankopoulos, is also the scribe.


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: a in Schwartz, N in Cobet, Prinz-wecklein, Neap. in Diggle

CITY: Naples

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III


DATE: 14th cent. (original copying 1320-1330 acc. to Günther)


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 93r: vita Eur., arg. Hec.; 93v-104r: Hec.; 104r-v: arg. Or.; 104v-118r: Or.; 118r: arg. Ph.; 118v-133r: Ph; 133r: arg. Tro.; 133r-140v: Tro.

IMAGES USED: digital images

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 54, Matthiessen 49, Mastronarde-Bremer 15, Günther 25


In the triad the main text and Moschopoulean glosses and scholia are written by the first hand in a careful style. Sometimes, the annotation at the top of the page is in the same blacker ink as the text, and then the scribe shifts to a lighter brown ink for the rest of the scholia. On a few pages some annotation is written by the rubricator, Yr. Subsequently (about a decade later, 1330-1340 acc. to Günther), another hand replaced some of the Sophocles pages of this manuscript and also added some notes to the Euripides portion. I follow Günther in calling this hand Yα (it appears very rarely in Or. 1-500). Another hand, Y2, has added in a more cursive style and brown ink (usually light) additional notes from a variety of sources. The text and scholia of Tro. are said by Schwartz and Turyn to be copied from V; this has not yet been verified.

Y is of special interest because it has scholia labeled with μαξ for Maximus Planudes. The labels are generally by Ya, and some of the notes so marked are by Y (e.g. Or. 220), but most are by a (e.g. Or. 291). In a couple of instances , when two consecutive notes are to be designated thus, the second one has τοῦ αὐτοῦ instead of μαξ (759 after 752). There are also a very few labeled μαν for Manuel Moschopoulos, but such labels are used almost exclusively when a Mosch. note is adjacent to one marked as Planudean, to indicate that the default assumption that the marginal scholia are Mosch. applies to a particular item. Turyn 55-56 lists most of the places where μαξ occurs and notes that in several cases the scholion is known as Moschopoulean (through attestation in XXaXbXo and marked with a cross in T), which means either that the label is mistaken or that Mosch. simply incorporated his teacher's note; I am inclined to agree with Günther that the latter is probably the case.

The full list for μαξ or τοῦ αὐτοῦ: life of Eur. (prob. applying to the following arg. Hec. as well), Hec. 1, 2 (two notes), 3, 12, 71, 80, 84, 87, 752, 759, 973, arg. Or., Or. 220, 291, 919, 1065, probably 1284 (damage has apparently obscured the μαξ, but the note below has τοῦ αὐτοῦ), 1288, arg. Ph. The μαν labels occur only four times, at sch. Hec. 85, 762, 852 (used here because of the unusual positioning of the Mosch. note in the top margin instead of the side margin), 973. For fuller details about these scholia, see a separate working paper.   


PREVIOUS OR OTHER SIGLA: Fl. 59 in Matthiae and Dindorf.

CITY: Florence

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana

SHELFMARK: Conventi soppressi 98 [once Abbatia Florentina 2872, then 59]

DATE: 14th cent.


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 3r: vita Eur.; 3r-v: arg. Hec.; 4r-34r: Hec.; 34r-v: arg. Or.; 35r-42v: an unrelated quire; 43r-80r: Or.; 80v-81v: arg. Ph.; 82v-124v: Ph.; 124v: arg. Andr.; 125r-v: Andr. 1-40 (no scholia)

IMAGES USED: Microfilm; scans of Turyn photographs.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 56-57, Matthiessen 50, Mastronarde-Bremer 15, Günther 28


The text and glosses are in an ink that varies in appearance from dark brown to black. Marginal annotation is often added in two stages. Generally, the first stage (essentially Mosch. scholia) is in a slightly lighter ink than the main text, in finer strokes; at a second stage, Yf2, other notes are worked into the margin around the existing ones, in a somewhat darker ink in thicker strokes, often with a border drawn around the previous note. Turyn, 57-60, notes that Yf2 has written the sch. Hec. 87 marked with μαξ in Y, and speculates that many other of the added scholia in Yf may be Planudean, listing some possibilities. Some of Turyn's examples are plausible, but many other unique Yf2 additions are of a different nature, and it is premature to make a definitive judgment before fuller collations of more manuscripts are completed for the whole triad.


CITY: Wolfenbüttel

COLLECTION: Herzog August Bibliothek

SHELFMARK: Gudianus gr. 15

DATE: 1320-1330


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: the first 3 folios are later replacements; 4r-27r: Hec. 91-1295; 27r: Thom. synopsis to Or.; 27v: arg. Or.; 28r-62v: Or.; 63r: arg. Ph., Thom. synopsis to Ph.; 63v-98r: Ph.

IMAGES USED: microfiche and scans from microfiche; new digital images (2014)

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 61, 164, Matthiessen 50, Mastronarde-Bremer 15, Günther 54-55


The first hand, known as Gr since Dinforf, added, for much of the triad, but not all, a set of Moschopulean annotation, in red ink; occasionally Gr has written Thoman notes instead. A later hand, which may be as late at ca. 1350 or perhaps closer in date to the original hand (see Günther), has been given a separate siglum Gu since the time of Dindorf. Gu has added other scholia in a smaller script, in brown ink, crowded around the previous annotation, and the vast majority of these are Thoman, though sometimes in a slightly different wording than that of other witnesses, or in agreement with Zm or ZmT against ZZa. In some places, however, as in early parts of Hecuba, Gu adds Mosch. annotation (where Gr had already supplied the Thoman). One peculiarity is that the scribe Gu often allows a word already written by Gr to serve as part of the Thoman scholion he is adding. For example, at Or. 272, above εἰ μὴ the Moschopulean gloss written by Gr is ναὶ τοξευθήσεται, supplying a main clause because the mss generally treated 271 as spoken by Electra and 272 as Orestes’ reply to her; the Thoman gloss on the same place is ναὶ βεβλήσεται, but Gu writes only the verb βεβλήσεται above τοξευθήσεται and expects Gr’s ναὶ to be read with it.

Manuscripts with Thoman scholia


CITY: Cambridge

COLLECTION: University Library

SHELFMARK: Nn 3.14 (first half)

DATE: first half of 14th cent. (1330-1350 acc. to Wilson and Günther; no later than 1320-1330 acc. to more recent studies of the watermarks and hands, for which see Gaul)


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r-v: vita Eur.; 1v-2r: Thoman synopsis to Hec.; 2v-14v, 16r-32v: Hec. 1-552, 593-1295 (15r-v with Hec. 553-592 is a 15th-century replacement); 32v-33r: Thoman synopsis to Or.; 33v-77r: Or.; 77r-v: Thoman synopsis to Ph., and dram. pers.; 78r-121v: Ph.

IMAGES USED: microfilm; some autopsy June 2010

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 44-47, Matthiessen 50, Mastronarde-Bremer 11, Diggle 11-12, Günther 95-96, Gaul 2011, 389-392


The text and annotation on the triad are the product of several scribes working in tandem (see Günther's description). The marginal scholia were written in black by Ioannes Zeianos (noteworthy for especially exuberant upsilons, omegas, and deltas in litagure), and the supralinear notes are almost all by the rubricator (who also did the initials of the marginal notes): both of these are referred to as Z, as they represent the main work of entering the Thoman commentary. The red ink appears quite faint on the microfilm and has entirely disappeared over the top line of some pages, where water damage has apparently occurred (sometimes these can be made out by autopsy). A few supralinear notes are added in dark ink, which I record as Zc (Günther uses Ζa). These are added later than the rubricator’s glosses. At Or. 362 Zc added the abbreviation for the ending -ων on πλησιάζων and ἐλλιμενίζων, which the rubricator had left without ending; at 421 the gloss was first ἐφθάρη in red, but Zc added σαν in black. There is also a later hand, Z2, who uses a light brown ink. This is hard to distinguish on the microfilm, and Günther reports that Z2sometimes rewrites faded glosses of Z.


CITY: London

COLLECTION: British Library

SHELFMARK: Arundel 540

DATE: 15th cent. (ca. 1450-1475 according to Günther, based on watermarks)


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 3r-5v, 8r-37v: Hec. 35-151, 233-1295; 37v: (fragment of) arg. Or.); 38r-v: Thoman synopsis to Or.; 39r-88r: Or.; 88r-90r: Thoman synopsis to Ph. and dram. pers.; 90r-135v: Ph. 1-1563

IMAGES USED: digital; now available online


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 99-100, Matthiessen 50-51, Diggle 12, Günther 97-98


Text and annotation are the work of a single hand. This witness is a twin of Z in the scholia as in the text, and the occasional differences in the scholia between ZZa and ZmGu were interpreted by Turyn as evidence for two Thoman recensions. Günther regards ZZaT as representative of a pure Thoman collection and ZmGu as adding non-Thoman elements, reflecting a different location (Thessalonica for the version of ZZaT and Constantinople for the additional material in ZmGu). There are, however, agreements of T with ZmGu against ZZa, so a full evaluation of the nature and origin of the distinctive scholia of ZmGu (or TZmGu) will have to await investigation based on larger body of evidence than that adduced by Günther.


CITY: Vatican City

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana


DATE: 1320-1330


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r-32v: Hec. 28-1295; 32v: arg. Or.; 33r-38v: Or. 1-274a; 39r-47v: Or. 368-809; 48r-66r: Or. 863-1693; 66r-67v: Thoman synopsis to Ph.; 67v-103v: Ph.

IMAGES USED: microfilm for Hec., Ph.; prints and scans from prints for Or.; some autopsy May 2012

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 100-101, Matthiessen 51, Mastronarde-Bremer 11-12, Diggle 12, Günther 99-100


The text and marginal scholia are in grayish brown ink in Hec., in a dark brown ink in Or.; in Ph. the text is in dark ink but the marginal scholia in red (Zb); similarly the initial glossation is light grayish brown for the first dozen pages of Hec., but thereafter is in red or faint purple for Hec. and in red for Or. and Ph. (also recorded as Zb). There are supralinear additions and corrections in dark ink (Zb1s). And finally there are some added in light brown (Zb2, although possibly still by the same scribe.


CITY: London

COLLECTION: British Library

SHELFMARK: Additional 10057

DATE: 1340-1350 for original part, ca. 1350-1375 for most replacement pages (16th cent. for fols. 1-7)


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: (original part) 53r-58v: Or. 18-264; 60r-66v: Or. 303-575; 68r-v: 612-647, 70r-73v: 684-824; 75r-90v: Or. 870-1508 (some folios in wrong order); 92r-95v: Or. 1545-1693; 96r-v: arg. Ph.; 97r-138v: Ph.



SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 130-131; Mastronarde-Bremer 171; Günther 96-97


See Günther for a full description of the replacement pages. The scholia on the original pages are added in red by the original hand, but no annotations are present from Ph. 199 to the end. Occasionally Günther's hand D has added some annotation (Zl2). The red ink is faded and often washed out and often impossible to make out on microfilm, but for many glosses enough is visible (with magnification) on the online images to confirm that a Thoman gloss is present.


CITY: Milan

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Ambrosiana

SHELFMARK: I 47 sup.

DATE: 14th cent. (as early as ca. 1310-1320 acc. to Günther on the basis of watermarks)


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 72r-v: vita Eur.; 72v-73r: Thoman synopsis to Hec.; 73r-v: short metrical treatise; 74r-97r: Hec.; 97r-v: Thoman synopsis to Or.; 98r-125v: Or.; 125v-126r: Thoman synopsis to Ph.; 126v-152v: Ph.

IMAGES USED: microfilm; digital images (unfortunately grayscale); some autopsy checking 2015

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 182, Matthiessen 51, Mastronarde-Bremer 12, Diggle 12-13, Günther 98-9, Gaul 2011, 393-394


See Günther for description of the hands involved in writing this codex and for remarks on the ink; the glosses are often in a lighter ink than the text and marginal scholia, but all by the same hand. A few glosses are in darker ink (Zm2), added after the ones in lighter ink. In Hecuba 1-500 I have found some glosses that lack diacritics and have very frequent errors of ε/αι, ι/ευ, and ο/ω, and this hand is termed Zmrec.


CITY: Uppsala

COLLECTION: Universitetsbibliotek

SHELFMARK: graec. 15

DATE: first half of 14th cent.


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 9r-44r: Hec. 28-1295; 44v-45r: arg. Or.; 45v-85r: Or.; 85r-86v: Thom. synposis to Ph., dram. pers.; 86v: Ph. 1-16; 87r-v: Ph. 101-149; 88r-v: Ph. 17-58; 89r-v: Ph. 341-385; 90r-93v: Ph. 150-340; 94r-119v: Ph. 386-1593

IMAGES USED: digital images

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 185-186, 164, Matthiessen 52, M-B 12, Diggle 13, Günther 223-224


Some of Zu’s glosses are the same as those in main Thoman manuscripts, but many are not, and Zu contains none of the longer marginal Thoman scholia.


CITY: Vatican City

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

SHELFMARK: Vat. graec. 1824

DATE: early 14th cent. (perhaps ca. 1315: Bianconi 117)


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 31r-37v: Ph. 296-673; 38r-53v: Ph. 937-1766

IMAGES USED: Prints from the 1980s, and digitized versions of those prints.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mastronarde GRBS 1985, 99-102; Gaul 307


Closely related to Zm in its text.


CITY: Wolfenbüttel

COLLECTION: Herzog August Bibliothek

SHELFMARK: Gudianus gr. 15

DATE: 1320-1330






Gu is the symbol assigned to the additions in tiny script made throughout Gud. gr. 15 by a different scribe from Gr. Most of the Gu additions are Thoman annotations, but some (esp. in the early parts of Hecuba) are Moschopoulean and some are of other origin, including some that, on present evidence, seem to be unique to Gu.

Manuscripts with Triclinian scholia


CITY: Rome

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Angelica

SHELFMARK: greco 14

DATE: 1300-1325


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: The following are the pages written by Triklinius, in brownish ink, with angular breathings; unless otherwise noted: 1r-2r: epitome of Hephaestion; 2v-3r: Triclinian treatise ἰστέον ὅτι κτλ; 3r-v: περὶ σημείων τῆς κοινῆς συλλαβῆς; 4r: Mosch. vita; 4v: Mosch. περὶ τοῦ ειδώλου; 5r-v: Thoman vita; 5v-6r: Thoman synopsis to Hec., dram. pers.; 6v-21v: Hec. 1-490 [black ink on 5-7, 13-18, 21; also on 4 Mosch. life and Mosch. on eidolon are in black but with angular breathings, like the brownish ink pages]; 25r-26v: Hec. 629-670; 33r-34v: Hec. 897-935; 37r-41v: Hec. 1010-1124; 46v (bottom of page only)-47v: Thoman synopsis to Or., dram. pers. (with some Mosch. sch. added bottom 47v in Triclinius' final stage) [black ink for arg. Or., brownish ink Mosch. sch. on 47v]; 52r-54v: Or. 145-224; 57r-59v: Or. 297-373; 71r-73v: Or. 772-840 [black ink 71]; 77r-79v: Or. 952-1022; 86r-100v: Or. 1240-1575; 104r: Or. 1682-1693; 104v-105v: Thoman synopsis to Phoen., dram. pers. [black ink]; 109r-120v: Ph. 103-384; 127r-131v: Ph. 601-712 [127 in black ink]; 134r-136v: Ph. 784-850; 141r-144v: Ph. 994-1081; 149r-154v: Ph. 1227-1375; 158r-162v: Ph. 1485-1602; 166r-167v: Ph. 1710-1760. The following are the pages by the scribe who copied originally the text (the scholia on these pages are virtually all by Triclinius: see below): 22r-24v: Hec. 491-628; 27r-32r: Hec. 671-896; 35r-36v: Hec. 936-1009; 42r-46v: Hec. 1125-1295; 48r-51v: Or. 1-144; 55r-56v: Or. 225-296; 60r-70v: Or. 374-771; 74r-76v: Or. 841-951; 80r-85v: Or. 1023-1239; 101r-103v: Or. 1576-1681; 106r-108v: Ph. 1-102; 121r-126v: Ph. 385-600; 132r-133v: Ph. 713-783; 137r-140v: Ph. 851-993; 145r-148v: Ph. 1082-1226; 155r-157v: Ph. 1376-1484; 163r-165v: Ph. 1603-1709. Folio 168r is a later replacement page with Ph. 1761-1766.

IMAGES USED: new digital images

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 23-41, Matthiessen 52-53, M-B 13, Diggle 13, Günther 36-38; on Triclinius see also Repertorium der griechischen Kopisten, 800-1600, I #104, II #136, III #170.


T is the working copy of Demetrius Triclinius. Triclinius’ working method has been described in detail by Turyn and Günther and may be summarized here. He began with a manuscript of the triad plays written by someone else ca. 1300-1310; this scribe, generally referred to as Tz, wrote a few Thoman annotations on some folios of Phoenissae, according to Turyn (I have detected a few in Orestes and used the same modified siglum for them). One peculiarity of this scribe that can be misleading is the the diaeresis on iota or upsilon is sometimes written without lifting the pen between the two dots, resulting in a stroke that looks very like the macron. This misled De Faveri in one or two places and also misled a student who did a preliminary collatiotn of some of T. In a first stage ca. 1315 Triclinius, using black ink and rounded breathing signs, added Thoman prefatory material and Thoman scholia and glosses, replacing or adding some pages (to contain the life and Thoman prefatory material). In a second stage ca. 1319-1325, using black ink and angular breathings, he added the Moschopulean life, Moschopulus’ short text περὶ τοῦ εἰδώλου that precedes Hecuba, and the Moschopulean scholia and glosses, and some of his own scholia. Moschopulean elements are marked with a cross before the item, or else immediately above the first word of a gloss if the word was already present as a Thoman gloss. In a third phase ca. 1325, now using brown ink and angular breathings, Triclinius added a few more of his own notes to the surviving original pages and also replaced almost all the pages containing lyric passages. He used these new pages to rewrite neatly those pages on which he had presumably added the working versions of his metrical scholia and made changes to the colon divisions. At this stage he also added the first three pages of the codex containing his version of an epitome of Hephaestion’s ‘Handbook of the Nine Meters’ and two short metrical texts of his own composition (available on this site). In the current edition I use the siglum T unmodified when a whole page is written by T at and stage and I use T3 only in places where Triclinius has added something in brown ink to a page previously annotated in black ink. Note that the substantial metrical scholia are all from the third phase, in brown ink. De Faveri’s edition marks most of the other Triclinian notation (long marks and the like) as T1/2. In this edition these are simply reported as T, but T3 is used in the few cases where such marks are added in brown on a page otherwise written in black ink. Although Triclinius tells us explicitly that the two sets of scholia he adds are by Manuel Moschopulos and Thomas Magister, it should be noted that he felt free to make minor changes in wording in some instances.


CITY: Vatican City

COLLECTION: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana

SHELFMARK: Urbinas gr. 142

DATE: second quarter of 14th cent. (watermarks are reported to suggest 1340-1350; notes on the added pages 4r and 5r and on 187r indicate the book was being read and studied in 1442/3, 1446, and 1451)


EURIPIDEAN CONTENTS: 1r-2r: epitome of Hephaestion; 2v-3r: Triclinian treatise ἰστέον ὅτι κτλ; 3r-v: περὶ σημείων τῆς κοινῆς συλλαβῆς; 4r-7v: slightly late inserts (described by Turn 195); 8r-v: Mosch. vita; 8v-9r: Mosch. περὶ τοῦ ειδώλου; 9r-10r: Thoman vita; 10r-v: Thoman synopsis to Hec., dram. pers.; 11r-55v: Hec.; 56r-57r: Thom. synopsis to Or., dram. pers.; two sch. on Or. 1-2; 57v-120v: Or.; 121r-122r: Thom. synopsis to Ph., dram. pers.; 122v-186v: Ph.

IMAGES USED: digital images from microfilm

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY: Turyn 194-196, 164, Matthiessen 53, M-B 13, Mastronarde GRBS 16 (1985) 104-106, Diggle 13, Günther 124-125, Gaul 2011, 397


A very faithful copy, or perhaps a copy of a copy of, T, useful for places where T is difficult to read and necessary where T has lost pages or has extensive marginal damage (as, e.g. on fol. 81r-v, where the poetic text is intact, but the outer margin with several scholia is lost). The collation of Or. 1-500 reveals that Ta omits a few notes and a little more often omits the cross that T has in front of a Moschopulean gloss. In addition Ta frequently places in front of a gloss a cross hat T has placed above the gloss: that is, Ta may give a misleading impression that a gloss is purely Moschopoulean when Triklinios marked it as a conincidence of Thoman and Moschopoulean glosses. One or two glosses not in T have been added by a later hand. When Ta is used because T is lost, the siglum Ta+ indicates that Ta has a cross before the item (which means that T had the cross either before or above the item).

The scribe has been identified with the scribe who wrote folios 24r-34r of Gr/Gu.