Euripides Scholia

Manuscripts Used in This Edition

Fuller descriptions of the manuscripts can be found by consulting the works listed in the bibliography for each item. Citations are by author’s name only (except that M-B indicates Mastronarde-Bremer); for the full titles see the Bibliography page. The fullest physical descriptions are usually in Turyn and Günther. I use the sigla that have been established by the work of Turyn, Matthiessen, and Diggle.

For an updated version of the list of manuscripts with fuller information see EurSchMSS2016.html.


1. Main witnesses for corpus of older scholia and witnesses before ca. 1261

H Jesusalem, Patriarchike Bibliotheke 36; 10th or 11th cent. Scholia on various portions of Hecuba, Phoenissae, Orestes, Andromache, Hippolytus, Medea. Collated from facsimile, Stephen G. Daitz, The Jerusalem Palimpsest of Euripides, Berlin 1970, with the help of Daitz’s reports in The Scholia in the Jerusalem Palimpsest of Euripides: A Critical Edition, Heidelberg 1979. I follow Daitz in his identification of hands for the scholia. The first two hands (which also wrote the text, dated by Daitz to around 1000) and the third hand (which Daitz dates to 1050-1150) added most of the scholia; a few additions were made by five additional hands of later date. I use the siglum H to indicate the first hand; other hands are indicated by a superscript number. Bibliography (in addition to Daitz’s indispensable volumes): Turyn 86-87; Matthiessen 41-42; M-B 2; Diggle 5.
M Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, gr. 471; 11th cent. Scholia on Hecuba, Orestes, Phoenissae, Andromache, Hippolytus. Collated from a microfilm and digital images produced from it. Like other old parchment manuscripts of Euripides, M has suffered fading and damage in the margins of some pages, and the writing is in places unrecoverable. The published facsimile and the original will be checked in the future. Bibliography: Turyn 84-85; Matthiessen 48; M-B 2; Diggle 5.
B Paris, Biblothèque Nationale, grec 2713, 11th cent. or even perhaps late 10th. Scholia on Hecuba 523-end, Orestes, Phoenissae, Hippolytus, Medea, Alcestis, Andromache. Collated from scanned images made by me from photographs from the collection of Alexander Turyn. Where the writing has faded a second hand has often rewritten the same words, and I simply report such readings as B unless there is some reason to believe that B2 altered the reading. At this point the glosses of B3, of the Palaeologan period, have not been collated, but they will be at a later date. The published facsimile and the original will be checked in the future. Bibliography: Turyn 87-88; Matthiessen 44; M-B 1-2; Diggle 5-6.
O Florence, Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, plut. 31.10, ca. 1175. Sparse scholia on Hecuba, Orestes, Medea. Images on line at (enter plut.32.10 in the field Segnatura and click on Cerca). Also have scanned images made from photographs from the collection of Alexander Turyn. The scholia are a very limited selection and are absent for long stretches of the text. Some notes in the top margin have been mutilated by the trimming of the paper, and sometimes a letter of two has been lost to trimming in the outer margin. The scholia are often in exceptionally tiny script and light in color and the ink-strokes are not crisp, making decipherment from the Turyn images in places impossible. The online images are better, but not of sufficient resolution to allow needed magnification in the most difficult places, and they do not show letters close to the binding on verso pages. The original will be checked at a future date. Bibliography: Turyn 333-335; Matthiessen 39; M-B 3; Diggle 6. [Flor. 10 in Matt., Dind.]
V Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, gr. 909, ca. 1250-1280. Scholia on nine select plays: Hecuba (lacking 212-256, 712-1069), Orestes (lacking 1205-1504), Phoenissae, Hippolytus, Medea, Alcestis, Andromache, Troades, Rhesus (lacking 112-151, 551-630, 941-end [but scholia end at 895]). Collated for Orestes from photographs (also scanned by me to allow helpful magnification). It has not seemed practical (or particularly useful) to try to separate out the early hand or hands which wrote the text, corrected the text and rewrote the text where it was light (and filled in some spaces initially left empty in the scholia). For now, therefore, V indicates the original hand, the corrections added by the original hand, and the early rewritings and additions in a darker ink (possibly still the same hand). At this time, the later additions (mostly glosses) of the hand called V3 by Diggle or V2 in Matthiessen and Mastronarde-Bremer have not been collated, but they will be added at some future stage. In the meantime, it must be recognized that some of the glosses ascribed to V might really be additions by V3. The original will be checked at a future date. (Note that the copy of V used by editors where V is missing, Va = Vatican, Palatinus gr. 98, contains only the poetic text and has no scholia.) Bibliography: Turyn 90-91; Matthiessen 46-47; M-B 3-4; Diggle 6. [Siglum A in Matt., Dind., Schw.]
C Turin, Biblioteca Nazionale, B.IV.13, first half of 14th century. Collated from microfilm. Scholia on Orestes and Phoenissae. Despite its date, C contains a very complete set of old scholia on these two plays and is not a copy of M, B, or V. The manuscript was burned around the edges in the fire that damaged the library in 1904; but in the portion collated so far the scholia have suffered almost no loss. The glosses that are in the same dark ink and same hand as the text and scholia blocks have been recorded. Other glosses written in extremely faint ink, apparently by a different hand, have not been taken into account yet. Bibliography: Turyn 85; M-B 5; Diggle 7. [Siglum T in Matt., Dind., Schw.]

2. Recentiores (witnesses after ca. 1261) containing old scholia

R Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, gr. 1135, written in South Italy in the very late 13th century. Collated from prints. Scholia and glosses on Hecuba (sparse) and Orestes and Phoenissae (sparse). Both the material and the script are poor, and this is a palimpsest with the Euripides text on top. For Hecuba the scholia are written in a block on fols. 1r-10v, before the text of the play; for Orestes some scholia were written in the margins of the text (more often at the beginning of the play than later), but these are often damaged by page trimming and perhaps in some places by deliberate erasure; a fuller set of scholia is written after the end of Orestes, on fols. 87v-101v, with reference numbers keyed back to the text. Supralinear glosses are present (again with more on some pages than others), some added by a second hand (but careful discrimination between hands must await a forthcoming visit to Rome to inspect the original). I use Ra to indicate the scholia that are in the margins of the text and Rb to indicate those in the continuous scholia on fols. 87v-101v. Bibliography: Turyn 94-96; Matthiessen 47; M-B 8-9; Diggle 9.
Sa Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, gr. 1345, ca. 1300. Collated from prints. Scholia and glosses on the triad plays. The scribe intersperses most of the scholia in blocks that alternate with short blocks of the poetic text, and text and scholia are of the same size; there are also supralinear glosses and a few short marginal annotations. Sometimes early in Orestes the scholia blocks run beyond the page on which the corresponding text occurs, and in order to get back into closer agreement of scholia and text on a single page the scribe seems to have omitted scholia on a stretch of lines. The reference numbers used by the scribe sometimes have no corresponding symbol at the expected point in the text, and sometimes when there is a corresponding number, the numbering is slightly off. Bibliography: Turyn 96-97; Matthiessen 47; M-B 10; Diggle 9. [Siglum V in Schw.]
Rf Florence, Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, plut. 32, 33, ca. 1290-1300. Images on line at (enter plut.32.33 in the field Segnatura and click on Cerca). Also have scans of Turyn photographs. Collated from both sources (but not yet represented in the current sample edition). Scholia on Hecuba 572-end, Orestes, and Phoenissae 1-1661 (on fol. 150v, scholia on Phoen. 1662-1726 are obscured by a strip of paper glued on for repair: these are not readable in the image, but something may perhaps be read through the covering paper by autopsy at a future date). Some annotations are in dark ink, some in red ink (Rfr), all apparently by same hand. The glosses recorded as Rf are in dark ink, occasionally shading toward light brown when the ink on the pen is running out; other glosses are in red ink (Rfr), and a few are in a light yellowish brown ink, recorded as Rf2. Bibliography: Turyn 337-338; Matthiessen 40; M-B 9; Diggle 9. [Fl. 33 in Matt., Dind.]
S Salamanca, Biblioteca Universitaria 31, dated 1326 by the scribe Ioannes Kalliandros. Collated from microfilms or scans from microfiche (but not yet represented in the current sample edition). The scribe writes small letters in a thick script, leading to many ambiguities. Blocks of scholia occur at irregular intervals, and there are many supralinear annotations and a few in margins of the text (which is sometimes in one column and sometimes in two columns). The scribe also at times neglects the line divisions of the iambic trimeters, and this may have contributed to some instances in which glosses are misplaced. Scholia on Hecuba, Orestes, and Phoenissae. Bibliography: Turyn 96; Matthiessen 45; M-B 9-10; Diggle 9; Antonio Tovar, Catalogus Codicum Graecorum Universitatis Salamantinae. I. Collectio Universitatis Antiquae [Acta Salamanticensia, Filosofia y Letras, XV.4 (1963)] 11, 12, 21-25, 88.
Mn Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, gr. 560, 14th cent. (early therein?). To be collated from microfilm. Not yet collated for this release, but checked for a few details where the reading of Mn had been reported by others. Scholia on Hecuba, Orestes, and Phoenissae. Bibliography: Turyn 344; Matthiessen 129; M-B 7; Diggle 8. [Siglum C in Dind.]
  Other manuscripts of this category yet to be investigated: W = Athos, Iber. 161 (209); At = Athos, Vatoped. 671; Hn = Copenhagen, GKS 417 (triad and Hipp.); D = Florence, plut. 31,15 (Hipp. Med. Alc. Andr.); Q = London, Harl. 5743 (a couple of sch. on Tro. and Rh.); Aa = Milan, Ambros. C 44 sup. (sparse sch. on triad); Milan, Ambros. F 205 inf. (few sch. on Andr.) [siglum W in Diggle’s OCT; different siglum will be needed here]; Modena, α.Q.5.19 (sch. Or. and Phoen., copy of B); N = Naples II.F.41 (triad, Hipp., Andr.); Y = Naples II.F.9 (Andr.); Pg = Paris, Bibl. Ste. Genev. 3400 (life of Eur.) [siglum G in Schw.]; Paris, grec 1087 (arg. Or. and Or. 1-31); Nv = Naples, Vindobonensis gr. 17 (triad, Hipp. 2-776, Med., Andr. 1-777; partly a copy of R, acc. to Turyn); Ox = Oxford, Bodl. Auct. T.4.10 (triad, Hipp.); Paris, grec 2810 (Hec. and Or.); Paris, grec 2818 (copy of B); Pr = Reims, Bibl. de la Ville 1306 (triad plays); Turin, C.V.3 deperditus (readings for sch. Andr. reported by Matt. and Dind.); Vatican, gr. 910 (old sch. on some of Hipp.); Rv = Vatican, gr. 1332 (Phoen. 1001-end); Vatican, Ottobonianus gr. 339 (Andr.) [siglum O in Schw., Y in Diggle’s OCT: both are already taken for scholia, so will use siglum Vo]; Vr = Vatican, Palatinus gr. 343 (Phoen., Hipp.); Vatican, Urbinas gr. 140 (life of Eur.) [siglum U in Schw.]; Rw = Vienna, phil. gr. 119 (triad) [siglum W in Schw.]; Venice, gr. IX 10 (copy of B); F = Venice, gr. 468 (some sch. on Hec.; arg. Med.).

3. Witnesses for Moschopulean Scholia on the Triad Plays

X Oxford, Bodleian Library, Auct. F.3.25, ca. 1330-1340. Collated from prints. In other manuscripts of this class, most of the shorter notes by Moschupulus are placed above the line, but X has most often moved these to the margins, sometimes adding a lemma and sometimes not, and sometimes combining two or three glosses from a single line into one marginal note. Bibliography: Turyn 42-3, Matthiessen 49, M-B 10-11, Diggle 10, Günther 38-39.
Xa Oxford, Bodleian Library, Barocci 120, ca. 1320-1330. Collated from prints. Bibliography: Turyn 98, Matthiessen 49, M-B 11, Diggle 10, Günther 39-40.
Xb Florence, Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, conv. soppr. 71, early 14th cent. (ca. 1310-1320 acc. to Günther), Collated from microfilm. Bibliography: Turyn 98-99, Matthiessen 49, M-B 11, Diggle 10, Günther 40.
Xo Oxford, Bodleian Library, Laud gr. 54, ca. 1330 acc. to Günther. Collated for Orestes from digital images. Contains Hec. 1-284, Or. 165-end, Phoen. all; has some glosses additional to the usual Moschopulean set, shared sometimes with T or Gu or Sa or Y. Bibliography: Turyn 139, Matthiessen 22 n.17, Günther 41.
T See below under 5.
Y Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, II.F.9, ca. 1320-1340. Collated from digital images. The main hand in Y provides a full set of Moschopulean glosses and scholia. One or more later hands crowd in additional scholia, sometimes in extremely tiny script that cannot be deciphered on the images I currently have because of low resolution. Some of the second hand’s notes (Y2 in the collation) sometimes reflect old scholia (usually modified) and sometimes present independent annotations not yet identified elsewhere. Some Y2 scholia are reported by Turyn and Günther to have notations of μαξ (indicating the authorship of Maximus Planudes), but I have not encountered any (legible) examples of this label in the first 500 lines of Orestes (except in conjunction with the epitome, arg. 1). Bibliography: Turyn 54-56, 135-137, Matthiessen 49, Günther 25-27.
Gr Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Gudianus gr. 15, 1320-1330. Collated from microfiche and scans of microfiche. The first hand added a full set of Moschopulean annotation (in red ink, although it must be a dark red, because this is not apparent in the B&W images I have). A later hand, which may be as late at ca. 1350 or perhaps closer in date to the original hand (see Günther), has been given a separate siglum Gu since the time of Dindorf. Gu has added other scholia in a smaller script, crowded around the previous annotation, and the vast majority of these are Thoman, though sometimes in a slightly different wording than that of other witnesses, or in agreement with Zm or ZmT against ZZa. One peculiarity is that the scribe Gu often allows a word already written by Gr to serve as part of the Thoman scholion he is adding. For example, at Or. 272, above εἰ μὴ the Moschopulean gloss written by Gr is ναὶ τοξευθήσεται, supplying a main clause because the mss generally treated 271 as spoken by Electra and 272 as Orestes’ reply to her; the Thoman gloss on the same place is ναὶ βεβλήσεται, but Gu writes only the verb βεβλήσεται above τοξευθήσεται and wants Gr’s ναὶ to be read with. Bibliography: Turyn 61, 164, Matthiessen 50, M-B 15, Günther 54-55.
  Manuscripts with Moschopulean annotation are extremely common, but most do not have a high priority for investigation until someone is at the stage of exploring more widely the proliferation of glossation in witnesses of the 14th and 15th century. The manuscripts worthy of earlier consideration are G (see under 6 below), Xp = Vatic. gr. 1363, Yf = Florence Laur. conv. soppr. 98, which have not yet been collated.

4. Witnesses for Thoman Scholia

Z Cambridge, University Library, Nn.3.14 (fols. 1-121), first half of 14th cent. (perhaps 1330-1350). Collated from microfilm. The supralinear notes are almost all by the rubricator, in an ink that appears quite faint on the microfilm and that has entirely disappeared over the top line of some pages, where water damage has apparently occurred. The marginal scholia are in the black ink of the text, and the same dark ink is used for a few supralinear glosses, which I record as Z1. The latter are added later than the rubricator’s glosses. At Or. 362 Z1 added the abbreviation for the ending -ων on both words πλησιάζων ἐλλιμενίζων, which the rubricator had left without ending; at 421 the gloss was first ἐφθάρη in red, but Z1 added σαν in black. Bibliography: Turyn 44-47, Matthiessen 50, M-B 11, Diggle 11-12, Günther 95-96.
Za London, British Library, Arundel 540, 15th cent. (ca. 1450-1475 according to Günther, based on watermarks). Collated from digital images. Hec. 1-232 and Phoen. 1564-end are now missing, while Or. is complete. This witness is a twin of Z in the scholia as in the text, and the occasional differences in the scholia between ZZa and ZmGu were interpreted by Turyn as evidence for two Thoman recensions. Günther regards ZZaT as representative of a pure Thoman collection and ZmGu as adding non-Thoman elements, reflecting a different location (Thessalonica for the version of ZZaT and Constantinople for the additional material in ZmGu). There are, however, agreements of T with ZmGu against ZZa, so a full evaluation of the nature and origin of the distinctive scholia of ZmGu (or TZmGu) will have to await investigation based on a much larger body of evidence than that adduced by Günther. Bibliography: Turyn 99-100, Matthiessen 50-51, Diggle 12, Günther 97-98.
Zm Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, I 47 sup., 14th cent. (as early as ca. 1310-1320 acc. to Günther on the basis of watermarks). Collated from microfilm. The writing is tiny and the ink strokes often less than crisp, so decipherment of some scholia is difficult. Bibliography: Turyn 182, Matthiessen 51, M-B 12, Diggle 12-13, Günther 98-9.
T See below under 5.
Zb Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, gr. 51, ca. 1320-1330. Collated from prints. Most of the glossation is in an ink somewhat lighter than that of the text, but there are also supralinear notes in the same darker ink as the text (referred to as Zb1s). Distinction of other hands will have to be obtained later by autopsy. In the glosses, Zb omits some items found in ZZaT and often introduces different items. The additions of Zb1s are sometimes regular Thoman glosses and sometimes idiosyncratic matter. Bibliography: Turyn 100-101, Matthiessen 51, M-B 11-12, Diggle 12, Günther 99-100.
Gu Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Gudianus gr. 15. See above under 3 (Gr).
  Also to be evaluated in the future are Zl = London Addit. 11057, Zs = Sinai, St. Catherine’s Greek 1196 (most of Or., small portion of Hec. and Phoen.), Zv = Vatic. gr. 1824 (part of Phoen. only), Zx = Cambridge Mm.1.11.

5. Witnesses for Triclinian Scholia

T Rome, Biblioteca Angelica, greco 14, 1300-1325, the working copy of Demetrius Triclinius. Collated from microfilm for Or. 1-500 (but digital images will be obtained, as those recently obtained for Hec. and Phoen. seem greatly improved over older images). Triclinius’ working method has been described in detail by Turyn and Günther and may be summarized here. He began with a manuscript of the triad plays written by someone else ca. 1300-1310; this scribe, generally referred to as Tz, wrote a few Thoman annotations on some folios of Phoenissae, according to Turyn. In a first stage ca. 1315 Triclinius, using black ink and rounded breathing signs, added Thoman prefatory material and Thoman scholia and glosses, replacing or adding some pages (to contain the life and Thoman prefatory material). In a second stage ca. 1319-1325, using black ink and angular breathings, he added the Moschopulean life, Moschopulus’ short text περὶ τοῦ εἰδώλου that precedes Hecuba, and the Moschopulean scholia and glosses, and some of his own scholia. Moschopulean elements are marked with a cross before the item, or else immediately above the first word of a gloss if the word was already present as a Thoman gloss. In a third phase ca. 1325, now using brown ink and angular breathings, Triclinius added a few more of his own notes to the surviving original pages and also replaced almost all the pages containing lyric passages. He used these new pages to rewrite neatly those pages on which he had presumably added the working versions of his metrical scholia and made changes to the colon divisions. At this stage he also added the first three pages of the codex containing his version of an epitome of Hephaestion’s ‘Handbook of the Nine Meters’ and two short metrical texts of his own composition (added to this site April 19, 2010). In the current sample edition I use only the siglum T and everything reported is written by Triclinius himself. At a later stage, after studying better images and checking the original, I plan to use distinguishing sigla for Tz (where relevant in Phoen.), T1, T2, T3. For the moment, note that the substantial metrical scholia are all by T3. De Faveri’s edition marks most of the other Triclinian notation (long marks and the like) as T1/2. For the portion of T collated so far, fols. 48r-51v (Or. 1-144), fols. 55r-56v (Or. 225-296), and fols. 60r-63r (Or. 374-500) are original, while fol. 47r-v (Thoman arguments and Thoman dramatis personae) was written by Triclinius in his first phase (but the Moschopulean scholia at the bottom of 47v have angular breathings and are from the second stage), and fols. 52r-54v (Or. 145-224) and fols. 57r-59v (Or. 297-373) are pages written entirely by Triclinius in his third stage. Triclinius tells us explicitly that the two sets of scholia he adds are by Manuel Moschopulos and Thomas Magister, but it should be noted that he felt free to make minor changes in wording in some instances. Bibliography: Turyn 23-41, Matthiessen 52-53, M-B 13, Diggle 13, Günther 36-38.
Ta Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Urbinas gr. 142, (prob. middle of) 14th cent. (watermarks are reported to suggest 1340-1350). Collated from digital images. A very faithful copy, or perhaps a copy of a copy of, T, useful for places where T is difficult to read. The collation of Or. 1-500 reveals that Ta omits a few notes and a little more often omits the cross that T has in front of a Moschopulean gloss. One or two glosses not in T have been added by a later hand. Bibliography: Turyn 194-196, 164, Matthiessen 53, M-B 13, Mastronarde GRBS 16 (1985) 104-106, Diggle 13, Günther 124-125.

6. Witnesses for Miscellaneous Palaeologan Scholia

G Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, L 39 sup., ca. 1320. Not yet collated. Written by a learned scribe, possibly Georgios Phrankopulos, who added largely Moschopulean annotation (with frequent variation from the standard form in XXaXbT), but also provided some other scholia, possibly of his own composition. Bibliography: Turyn 342, 164, Matthiessen 42-43, M-B 6-7, Diggle 8, Günther 57-59. [siglum Q in Schw.]
Y Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, II.F.9. See above under 3.
Zu Uppsala, Universitetsbibliotek, graec. 15, first half of 14th cent. Collated from digital images, only for Or. 1-104 at this time. All three triad plays. Some of Zu’s glosses are the same as those in main Thoman manuscripts, but many are not, and Zu contains none of the longer marginal scholia. It may repay further study at the stage when the more independent Palaeologan glossation (not Moschopulean or Thoman) is being investigated. Bibliography: Turyn 185-186, 164, Matthiessen 52, M-B 12, Diggle 13, Günther 223-224.
  Other manuscripts in this category for future investigation: Zd = Cambridge Nn.3.14 fols. 122-209 (bound with Z, which is fols. 1-121); Fp = Parma, Biblioteca Palatina, Fondo Parmense 154; Mo = Modena, Bibl. Estense α.U.9.22; Cr = Cremona, Bibl. Governativa 130.